ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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తగ్గుతున్న మహిళా కార్మికుల పాత్ర

Demand- as well as supply-side factors constrain the labour force participation of rural women.


The translations of EPW Editorials have been made possible by a generous grant from the H T Parekh Foundation, Mumbai. The translations of English-language Editorials into other languages spoken in India is an attempt to engage with a wider, more diverse audience. In case of any discrepancy in the translation, the English-language original will prevail.


The female labour force participation rate (FLFPR) in India has been one of the lowest among the emerging economies and has been falling over time. This has resulted in a decrease in the ratio of working females to the population of females in the working age group. The FLFPR in India fell from 31.2% in 201112 to 23.3% in 201718. Further, the FLFPR for rural areas declined by more than 11 percentage points in 201718. Although there has also been a decrease in the labour force participation of rural males, the rate of decline was much sharper for rural women. Not only are women withdrawing from the labour force, they are also being outcompeted by men in the existing jobs in rural areas. This situation necessitates a deeper understanding of issues that hinder female labour force participation.

Low participation of women in the labour force in India is attributed to the lack of employment opportunities, rising education levels and household incomes, and problems in measurement, such as under-reporting of womens work. However, rural distress in recent times has affected women the most as income-generating opportunities have disappeared. The problem of labour demand constraints or the lack of suitable job opportunities is acute for women in rural India, with a fall in the availability of farm jobs and the lack of economic opportunities in non-farm employment. Mechanisation of farm and non-farm activities has also reduced opportunities for work.

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Published On : 20th Jan, 2024

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