ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Rural Employment Scenario in North East India

Agrarian distress and rural unemployment have always been concerns in India. After the 1991 reforms, the government made inclusive growth the theme of development and undertook policy initiatives to boost rural employment. One such initiative, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, aims to provide landless labourers and marginal farmers work in the lean season and, thus, income. It seems to have succeeded, although it has not created new jobs in general.

Understanding Deprivation and Well-being of Households with Children

The composite multiple deprivation index of households with and without children is estimated based on the India Human Development Survey data for 2011–12. The study uses both household- and individual-level dimensions such as shelter, sanitation, water, education, food, health and information. The bivariate logit model is used to find out the factors responsible for the deprivation of the households with children.

Employment Scenario and the Reservation Policy

In its haste to placate the growing resentment amongst the unemployed youth, the Indian government has come up with an ill-informed and loose definition of who constitutes the “economically weak.” Some of the major arguments that have been levied against the 124th amendment to the Constitution are empirically substantiated in the light of the current state of employment generation, particularly in the public sector, as well as the performance of the state with respect to fulfilling the existing reservation policy.

Criminalisation of Bengali Muslims after the 2008 Jaipur Bomb Blasts

The lives of Bengali Muslims in a slum in Jaipur changed overnight after the bomb blasts of 2008. Through narratives gathered from the field, how the criminalisation and dehumanisation of a community was made possible is shown.

Diaspora Philanthropy and Development in Rural Punjab

The level of diaspora philanthropy and its role in socio-economic development in rural Punjab is analysed using primary data from 24 selected villages. The findings reveal that while cumulatively, diaspora philanthropy is important for socio-economic development in the selected villages in Punjab, the philanthropic donations and their impacts were not equally distributed among them.

Social Expenditure and Human Development in Gujarat

The relative position of Gujarat on economic and human development indicators for 10 years from 2004–05 is examined. The state government’s priorities for human development in terms of budgetary allocation to the social sector in general, and education and health sectors in particular over a 10-year period are compared using expenditure ratios and per capita social sector expenditure.

Towards Building an Ecological Civilisation

There is a need to contemplate and work towards building an ecological civilisation that would outline the ways of living in harmony with nature. Dialogue and a belief in collective good mark the culture of bahudha , an approach that celebrates diversity and harmonious living.

Discriminatory Attitudes towards the Female Mobility

Empirical evidence from a survey experiment administered in Bihar, Punjab, Kerala, and Delhi reveals discriminatory attitudes towards the freedom of movement of females. The findings reveal the main effect—an indication of discrimination against females in the context of mobility—to be significant and the magnitude of the main effect to vary significantly by region, though the treatment condition is still significant in each.

Schooling and the Intra-world of Muslim Community

A narrative of the issues, complexities and challenges that Muslim educational institutions face from within, stresses the need to pay attention to schools as independent institutions in order to understand the intricacies of schooling.

Taxes on Petro Products

Petro products are price-sensitive, as these constitute key inputs to private consumption, industrial production, and public transportation. Petro prices have global linkage and exhibit high volatility. A quantitative and historical analysis of taxes on petroleum products in India, which is largely import-dependent, is undertaken, as the tax component constitutes 40%–50% of the retail price. During 2015–16 and 2016–17, the government could have reduced tax rates on petrol and diesel, but it did not, probably because of the wider considerations of fiscal balance and development imperatives.

Taiwan’s Pension Crisis

With the emergence of democratisation in Taiwan, political parties compete over social welfare and pension benefits to please voters. Voters want substantial increases in social welfare and pension benefits but are fiercely resistant to tax increases. Taiwan’s government debt has continued to accumulate considerably. The Ministry of Civil Service estimates that many of the pension systems will go broke soon. Taiwan’s pension system is rather complicated; it is being restructured. Without a sustainable pension system, future generations of taxpayers will shoulder the pension spending on current generations. Ending Taiwan’s low economic growth is a prerequisite for a sustainable pension system.

Estimates of Tobacco-dependent Employment in India

India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2004, thus committing itself to reducing tobacco consumption gradually and providing alternative livelihood opportunities to tobacco-dependent workers, including bidi rollers and farmers. While the central government’s demand-side measures seem effective, controlling the supply of tobacco and providing alternative vocations to workers is necessary.

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