ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Prevalence of Undernourishment in Indian States

Prevalence of undernourishment, a measure developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization, is a key indicator for global hunger and food insecurity targets. The FAO has developed a sound conceptual model for estimating the prevalence of dietary energy deficiency. However, the estimation methodology of the prevalence of undernourishment has been a subject of much debate. Important modifications are suggested in the estimation of the distribution of average calorie intake and average minimum dietary energy requirements. Using the latest available data and the revised methodology, it is shown that about 472 million people in India, a staggering 39% of the population, were undernourished in 2011–12.

Medical Devices Manufacturing Industry

Not much is widely known about the market size and dynamics of the Indian medical devices industry. The size of the market for medical devices and equipment in India and its dependence on import is estimated. The market size of medical devices and equipment has been estimated for the period from 2010–11 to 2013–14, which was found to have accelerated from $2.7 billion to $4 billion, while imports served 70% of the total domestic needs in 2013–14. The share of medical devices-based diagnosis in households’ out-of-pocket expenditure on health has increased from 2.2% in 1993–94 to 7.6% in 2011–12. Regulatory mechanisms must be put in place to bring all key medical equipment under price control in order to drive down prices.

Institutional Exclusion of the Hill Tribes in Manipur

Ever since the colonial government brought the hill areas by annexation into the fold of Manipur, which was then only the Imphal Valley, the hill tribes and the valley community have been “living together separately,” with certain separate administrative arrangements. The problems of present-day Manipur are the consequences of this forced integration of two different entities. After India’s independence, the hill tribes in the North East were protected under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution, but the Manipur hill tribes were left out. This denial of the extension of the Sixth Schedule to Manipur is a process of institutional exclusion, which has led to the demand for greater autonomy.

Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Dryland Areas

The attainment of financial, environmental and social sustainability of urban service provision has become problematic nowadays. Within urban services, the supply of water and its disposal after use have become very important because water has to be brought from distant sources and the waste water needs to be treated before being discharged into natural waterbodies, both of which are very costly propositions. In dryland areas, which are physically water scarce and constitute some 70% of the country, the problem becomes even more acute. The water supply and sanitation services in the city of Indore in Madhya Pradesh are critically reviewed, and suggestions are made for alternative measures for a more equitable and sustainable water management system.

Managing the Water–Energy Nexus in Agriculture

Water management technologies, mainly micro-irrigation, help save water by 39% and energy by 58%. In 2025, the total demand for water in India is projected to be 886 billion cubic metre, and the total electricity demand 4,18,277 million kWh. Adoption of micro-irrigation is increasing at 1.22% per annum. If this growth rate continues, about 8.8 million hectares will be under micro-irrigation in 2025, and 24 bcm of water and 3,598 MkWh of electricity will be saved annually. To boost adoption, the government should promote cost-effective micro-irrigation system designs, simplify subsidy norms, and strengthen capacity-building programmes for farmers.

Ideas of Charan Singh

Charan Singh’s intellectual practice has remained under-explored in the realm of the study of Indian intellectual traditions. At a time when development promises continue to elude agrarian and rural India, Singh’s ideas are worthy of serious attention because he presented a comprehensive critique of the development discourse in India from the perspective of agriculturists and the countryside. By noting why Singh’s written word should attract more attention, the paper goes on to mark the leitmotifs that may help one to navigate through Singh’s oeuvre. Further, it attempts to present an outline of three important developmental issues delved upon in Singh’s writings.

Determinants of Electoral Outcomes

The constituency-level electoral data of 10 parliamentary elections in India, from 1980 to 2014, is used to explore the factors that determine the outcome of parliamentary elections in India. The authors have employed logistic regressions to estimate a vote function with political variables, such as incumbency, political alignment, and political party affiliation, as determinants. That incumbency reduces the chances of winning in close elections, and/or that incumbency disadvantage has been strong in the Hindi belt since the elections of 1998, especially in the states with lower real per capita income, higher share of rural population and low literacy rates are among the various interesting findings that emerge.

Are Resettled Oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project ‘Better Off’ Today?

Three decades after their displacement on account of the Sardar Sarovar Dam, the living conditions of resettled tribals in Gujarat are compared with those living in semi-evacuated villages and in villages within a 15–20 kilometre radius of the project-affected area. Findings on asset ownership, housing and living conditions, occupation, agricultural practices, and awareness and utilisation of government programmes and services are presented in order to determine whether the resettled population is “better off” as compared to the other two groups.

Structural Change Forecasts for India

India’s government claims to “transform India into a global manufacturing hub” and in the process raise manufacturing to 25% of gross domestic product and create 100 million new manufacturing jobs. This would entail a structural change comparable to that witnessed by several East Asian countries beginning in the 1960s. This study projects a formal-sector manufacturing boom over 20 years at the sectoral level, assuming India can take the necessary steps to initiate such a boom. Projection parameters are carefully constructed based on the Indian and the East Asian historical experience. The projections break out the key growth areas of formal-sector manufacturing and modern services to capture their unique characteristics. The results show large positive gains to aggregate output and employment from initiating an East Asia-style manufacturing boom. Reflective of the small size of the formal-sector manufacturing employment currently, the results indicate that the government’s specific employment goals appear unattainable in the next 20 years.

Alternatives to Aadhaar-based Biometrics in the Public Distribution System

States across the country are taking steps towards providing digital identities to beneficiaries of their public distribution systems. In doing so, the use of Aadhaar-based biometrics seems to be the preferred choice of method. However, several other methods exist for the same and have been adopted by different states at different points in time. States currently embarking on the journey of providing digital identities to their beneficiaries might benefit from evaluating all available alternatives before adopting a suitable method.

Assessing Economic Impacts of Connectivity Corridors in North East India

One of the main constraints to development in North East India is the lack of connectivity. How the existing East–West Corridor and the proposed transboundary corridors such as the Trilateral Highway, the Kaladan Multimodal Transit Transport Project, and the Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Economic Corridor connecting India with neighbouring countries in the eastern neighbourhood would stimulate economic activities in the North East is examined. It is found that the corridor-based development projects may generate economic activities and regional development, which, in turn, would influence economic growth through higher production and consumption.

Growth, Development Spending, and Inequality in Indian States

The relationship of economic growth from 1988 to 2012 in Indian states with poverty and inequality is analysed. The results suggest that in faster-growing states, poverty levels have declined, but poverty intensity has not changed and the highest increase is in inequality. An examination of the performance of development spending (which should mostly benefit the poor) incurred by the states indicates that though faster-growing states showed high spending on the development sector, development spending benefited the rich more effectively than the poor—contrary to the intent behind it—thereby raising inequality in the state.

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