ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Census Towns in Uttar Pradesh

An understanding of the emergence of new census towns, as reported by the 2011 Census, necessitates an investigation, specifically at a micro level, into the factors behind the shift of the male working population from the farm sector to the non-farm sector. The emergence of census towns at an all-India level and the history of census towns in Uttar Pradesh are examined. Census towns in selected districts of UP have been analysed to comprehend the trends and patterns of urbanisation resulting from the transformation of rural areas into urban settlements. A case study of Soraon, a census town in Allahabad district of UP, has also been undertaken to further understand the urbanisation process along the rural–urban continuum.

Groundwater, Gurus, and Governmentality

Temples and religious organisations undertaking community projects and welfare work have been a part of the history of South Asia. However, in the neo-liberal era, international governmental platforms, international funding agencies, multinational corporations, central and state government bodies, and international Hindu religious organisations are coming together to effect large-scale developmental efforts. The nuances of this shift are traced by comparing the groundwater management and conservation projects undertaken by the Swadhyay Parivar in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in the early 1990s, and Art of Living across the country in the last decade. While many would argue that non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations have occupied the void created by a neo-liberal state disappearing from the public sector, this paper shows that the state–international bodies–MNC–religion complex has regimented a large population in an all-pervasive governmentality.

Restricted and Unrestricted Fiscal Grants and Tax Effort of Panchayats in India

The impact of restricted and unrestricted fiscal grants on tax effort of panchayats is examined using nationally representative panel data on finances. Three pathways are proposed through which these impacts accrue: wages, profits, and incentives. In order to deal with the simultaneities of grants received and taxation, a system of equations is estimated simultaneously, where the first stage equations predict the grants. The results show that a wage impact on taxation exists, but is very small and the productivity impact of grants on taxes is negligible. This means that incentive effects associated with the specifics of the intergovernmental fiscal system in the states are the main determinant of village taxation. Several policy conclusions are advanced.

From Mobile Access to Use

The digital divide is the disparity between individuals with respect to access to information and communication technologies. The growing prevalence of mobile phones in India is often linked to phones becoming access points to various government schemes and services. However, ICTs have various features that are not uniformly operated by different users. The use of mobile phones is examined using micro-level data to highlight how the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals (age, gender, literacy, etc) influence their engagement with the various features of a mobile phone.

Redesigning the Fiscal Transfer System in India

An overwhelming proportion of the poor live in low-income states in India. These states are home to over two-thirds of the children in the 0–14 age group. Therefore, provision of comparable levels of basic social services and physical infrastructure is important to ensure balance and stability in the Indian federation. This underlines the importance of intergovernmental transfers. Conceptually, general purpose transfers are given to enable the states to provide comparable levels of public services at comparable tax effort, and specific purpose transfers are given to ensure a minimum standard of public services. The shortcomings in both the design and implementation of the transfer system in India hinder its ability to achieve the objectives.

Determinants of Wage Differences between the Inmigrant and Local Labourers in the Construction Sector of Kerala

The wage determinants of inmigrant and local labourers in the construction sector of Kerala exhibit varied intensity in influencing their wage and wage gap. The predominance of interstate migrants in the labour market of Kerala has resulted in high incidence of wage difference, necessitating a revisit of the labour laws and wage policies of the state.

Has the National Health Mission Improved Utilisation of Maternal Healthcare Services in Bihar?

Based on data from the National Sample Survey Office’s surveys on healthcare, this study critically evaluates the impact of the National Health Mission on improving utilisation of maternal healthcare services in Bihar, which had very poor maternal and child health outcomes at the start of the mission. In particular, it investigates factors affecting the utilisation of maternal care services and choice of facilities between the pre- and post-NHM periods; assesses the success of the Janani Suraksha Yojana in enhancing institutional delivery, particularly in public facilities; and estimates the out-of-pocket expenditure on maternal care in the pre- and post-NHM periods and identifies factors affecting such expenditure levels.

Designing a Framework for Benefit Packages

Development of an essential health package requires explicit prioritisation on the basis of a country’s characteristics. A practical framework is presented to determine an EHP, considering coverage and equity perspectives for service delivery, financial protection and morbidity burden in the population. An analysis of morbidity data, unmet need for treatment, and impoverishment due to out-of-pocket spending reveals that a significant reduction in oop expenditure and impoverishment is possible through targeted inclusion of potentially high impoverishment-causing morbidities in EHPs. Such an approach may offer the desired flexibility in decision-making to policymakers, without compromising on benefits transferred to the needy.

The Tightening Ideational Regimentation of China’s Higher Education System

The operation of the contrary forces of diffusion and control in China’s higher education system is critically examined, highlighting the distinctiveness of China’s internationalisation of higher education. The history of internationalisation of higher education in China, including crucial phases from the Deng era, beginning in 1978 to the Xi Jinping regime is described. The ideational regimentation is discussed in detail and its implications brought forth, and important questions that emerge from the dualism in China’s higher education system are considered.

Elementary Education in 19th-century Bengal

In order to analyse the educational policy of 19th-century Bengal, two factors should be studied and evaluated critically. These are the changing notions of British imperialism and the educational development of contemporary Britain. The reasons for the neglect of natives’ education are many. These included keeping the Indians dependent on foreign rule for as long as possible, a fear that education would encourage liberal ideas and create a large class which would demand independence, or perhaps because Britain was backward in the development of education in the 19th century.

Innovations in Public Administration in India

Innovations in public service could be a core driver for ensuring that public administration becomes competitive, efficient, cost-effective and accountable to the citizenry. This state of innovation in India is analysed through the Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration for the period 2005–06 to 2016–17. The analysis shows that most of the innovations are management innovations, followed by technological innovations. They indicate some degree of direction in good governance and replicability. There is also need for some scouting mechanism for public administration innovations and for providing a replicable yet flexible template to promote them across the country.

Braverman’s Legacy

Capitalism has countered the possibility of organised labour’s opposition to the deskilling and degradation of labour in terms of wages and labour power. This has occurred due to the implementation of global information technology and the imposition of international policies that ensure the free movement of capital and, to a lesser degree, the free movement of labour. This article attempts to explore, through the lens of Harry Braverman’s seminal work, the idea that skill degradation is not about the replacement of total aggregate labour by automation, but rather one of the means by which capital ensures that there is continued division and internal conflict of labour itself within and between national borders, and that labour competes with automated systems in terms of profitability.

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