ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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The Need to Curb Patents on Known Substances

Despite a progressive judgment by the Supreme Court of India on Section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act, the processes of legislation and implementation are not equipped to uphold the spirit of the Novartis judgment. This article explains the various loopholes that plague the system of patents in India, and suggests possible solutions.

Two Decades of Struggle

The Supreme Court judgment in the Novartis case is important as it vindicates the entire process leading to health safeguards being incorporated in the Indian Patents Act. The article discusses this process, from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and popular mobilisation in India to the enactment of and amendments to the Act, in the backdrop of the judgment.

Analysing the Supreme Court Judgment

A detailed account of the examination of Section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act in the Supreme Court's judgment on Novartis's patent application for Glivec.

The Many Spaces and Times of Swadeshi

This article argues that the deterritorialised politics of affinity generated by swadeshi, over and against the imagined community of the nation, was its greatest legacy. It holds that though the swadeshi agitators have been taken to task for not having a political programme to displace the colonial power through mass mobilisation, they found filiations on an emerging map of freedom the world over. Swadeshi politics thus created nodes, strategies, techniques of power and technologies of the self, and created another paradigm against the dyad of state power versus public representation that the moderates had been trapped in.

Knowledgeable Internationalism and the Swadeshi Movement, 1903-1921

The swadeshi movement has been classically studied in terms of its social constructiveness and its ultural productivity. But a view of the intellectual dimensions of productive nationalism is also needed. Taking the perspective of intellectual history, this article explores the travelling and connective intellectual dimensions of the swadeshi movement. Internationalist projects in knowledge production and acquisition for nationalist ends were its major features. In its Tagorean and Asutoshian approaches, it sought both to assert indigenous autonomy from the British empire and to establish knowledgeable affiliations beyond empire, on the world stage.

Reading Sumit Sarkar through Anarchist History and Historiography

This paper points out why at two moments, nearly a century apart, a perceived affinity between anarchism, postmodernism and Hindutva might cause some progressive activists and historians to reject all three as hopelessly entangled. However, while it is important to take note of some commonalities in their jumping-off points and traits of form and sensibility, their differences are equally telling. And it is crucial to note these, if we are to jump in good directions. This is as true within each discourse as between them.

'Fashioning' Swadeshi

This article explores the gendered implications of the swadeshi rhetoric by focusing on how its language was creatively appropriated by the Hindu publicists of colonial United Provinces to dress up Hindu middle-class, upper-caste women in particular ways. This had implications for a new vocabulary of sartorial morality, for modern bourgeois values of thrift and for Hindu revivalism. However, swadeshi dress campaigns were also embedded in social, caste and religious hierarchies, sexual divisions and moral boundaries, exposing various tensions at the heart of the project.

Swadeshi Oratory and the Development of Tamil Shorthand

Vernacular political oratory in the Madras Presidency sought to bring the gospel of swadeshi to the common farmer and labourer and this was something entirely new. When police officers took cognisance of these meetings, they began to figure out new modes of surveillance and recording, and it was this that prompted the innovation of vernacular shorthand. By the 1920s, the age of vernacular politics had begun and the police had developed a really workable system of shorthand reporting, which soon had widespread applications in many other spheres of life.

Through the Lens of a Constitutional Republic

The textbook controversy is an opportunity for us to explore some of our core constitutional principles, especially the relationship between Parliament and freedom of expression. Parliament is certainly the space to discuss complaints of "offensive material" but should exercise its option of withdrawal of the textbooks in the "last instance" not in the "fi rst instance" as has been done in this case.

The Constitution, Cartoons and Controversies

A close reading of the Political Science textbook shows that it is complex, moves beyond pat answers, and treats the Constitution as a living document. It was produced in the light of the National Curriculum Framework 2005, which in itself was a major attempt to democratise education, and reverse the National Curriculum Framework 2000 which was casteist and sexist.

Politics and Pedagogy

School texts that teach young minds that politics is a contentious and critical but reasonable activity, that it is not merely a set of demands and commands, and that politicians have to be responsive and accountable are naturally disliked by the political class. This is the tone of all the Political Science textbooks of Standards IX-XI brought out after 2006. The nurturing of a culture of critical public opinion seems threatening to the wielders of authority. Hence, the call to sanitise the entire range of texts.

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