ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Adaptation Co-benefits of Development Programmes in India

Twelve major development programmes in five sectors are examined to see whether they enhance the country’s ability to adapt to the impacts of future climate change. The Indian government could leverage the existing development programmes to achieve adaptation goals if it establishes a framework for mainstreaming climate change adaptation, provides financial incentives for development programmes to integrate adaptation objectives, and builds institutional capacity to design, implement, and monitor adaptation activities.

Space as Political Text

Taking space and its transformations as a political text, this article looks into the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion as well as the manner in which space is implicated in memory. It engages in this exploration by focusing on the process known as the “beautification” of Colombo implemented by the Rajapaksa regime in Sri Lanka as one of its most iconic political programmes.

Politics of Pollution

The Godavari Mega Aqua Food Park, which is expected to come up in Tundurru village in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, is being resisted by the local residents. This resistance stems out of the local populace’s concerns regarding the pollution that would be caused by the upcoming factory, and its adverse effects on the health, natural resources and livelihoods of the people. The use of violent repressive measures by the government to quell the protests against the project posits the upcoming industry as a product of the state–corporate nexus, with no concern for the health, well-being or prosperity of the people it claims to serve.

Burden of Post-partum Depression

Post-partum depression is a rising health concern in India, having an impact on the lives of both rural and urban women. Seventeen studies on PPD have been examined in order to understand the current state of knowledge of PPD, with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, effects and interventions.

Rural Electrification in India

Over the past decade and a half, India has evidenced substantial investments in rural electrification. As per official estimates, 100% village electrification and over 90% household connections have been achieved. But, if this investment is to return rural development dividends, it is important to focus on the issues of affordability, sufficiency, and quality of electricity supply, especially for small consumers. Without this, there is a danger that the new rural infrastructure will fall to disuse, as had happened in states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh after the first wave of rural electrification. Both policies and politics need to shift focus from universal connections to upgradation of quality of supply and services.

Financial Inclusion of Female Sex Workers

The clandestine nature of sex work and the stigma surrounding it restricts access to and utilisation of financial services by female sex workers, and makes it more difficult for policymakers to design appropriate programmes for their empowerment. An examination of the factors that contribute to the utilisation of financial services focused on FSWs reveals that there is an urgent need to strengthen linkages with formal banking institutions for the financial inclusion and empowerment of FSWs.

Decentralisation of Environmental Regulations in India

The decentralisation of Environment Impact Assessment processes has improved the enforcement of environmental regulations and been successful in reducing polluting activities in India. Evidence suggests that decentralisation was associated with relatively fewer firm births in states with stricter environmental law enforcement. In such a scenario, the development of stronger collaborations between various stakeholders would enhance the enforcement of environmental regulations and reduce disparities between states, through knowledge and resource sharing, and improving technical, financial and administrative capabilities.

Protection of Traditional Knowledge

The new National Intellectual Property Rights Policy advocates an aggressive, neo-liberal agenda of commodification of knowledge, and extends this to traditional knowledge as well. However, there is a need to revisit the primary, still unresolved issues regarding the protection of traditional knowledge and their tentative solutions. Considering the inevitability of participation in the global trade order, a case is made for equipping traditional knowledge holders and indigenous and local communities with the wherewithal to participate in the market economy, proactively assert their rights over their traditional knowledge, and derive benefits from its use.

The Role of Teacher Education Programmes

Based on a study that explores the conceptions of citizenship among students of two popular teacher education programmes in Delhi, this article reveals how teacher education programmes are critical in influencing notions of citizenship, either by reinforcing the prevalent notions or in expanding the horizons within which citizenship is understood and practised. A strong empirical case is made for taking the curriculum and pedagogic processes of preparing teachers seriously, especially if educators hold the conviction that teachers can play a critical role in social transformation.

Rights-based Approaches to Development in Odisha

Two strategies employed by non-governmental organisations that are key to a rights-based approach to development are examined, ensuring the active engagement of state duty-bearers and building alliances at multiple levels. The aim is to understand how sustainable alliances between NGOs, the state, communities, and other stakeholders are built at the grass-roots level. The findings indicate the importance of ensuring the active participation of communities in development activities, especially through continuous interactions with government duty-bearers and networking with different grass-roots groups.

Grappling with Foxes and Hedgehogs of India’s Senior Civil Services

One of the neglected areas of reforms of India’s organised senior civil services relates to the rationalisation of its branching structure and the related debate of generalist vs specialist services. The present structure is a confusing hotchpotch of specialist and generalist branches, at different layers of government, and has largely resulted in inter-branch rivalries,dissatisfaction, and a dysfunctional organisational structure, affecting the efficiency of the senior management and governance. In light of this, a rationalised redesign, effected through a mix of mergers, abolitions, and reinvention and with specialised–generalist branches responsible for broad domains of functions, appears to be the most suitable strategy for reform.

A Less Acknowledged Source of Gandhi’s Ideas of Trusteeship

Mahatma Gandhi’s views on trusteeship deserve special attention as part of the discipline of political economy. He repeatedly opposed the idea of expropriating wealth or property from the rich, yet, for him, wealth did not “belong” to the rich owner. The owner was merely the “trustee,” one who was duty-bound to take care of the wealth and use it not just for his personal welfare but for the welfare of many. Similarly, the firm too was in his opinion held “in trust” by the person in control in a tripartite partnership along with its employees and customers. The different nuances of Gandhian trusteeship are examined by tracing the infl uences on Gandhi that led him to his conclusions.

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