ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Weather Service for Agriculture

The salient features of a comprehensive weather service for agriculture should be (i) keeping constantly in touch with user requirements; (ii) rapid and efficient dissemination facilities ; (iii) interpretation of the forecasts to meet the specific operational needs of farmers; and (iv) intensive research for evolving improved techniques and for better understanding of crop-weather relationships.

New Concepts in Irrigation-Necessary Changes for New Strategy

With the introduction of the high-yielding varieties, water management in crop cultivation has assumed a new dimension. It is not merely that timely and adequate supply of water is required, but that a con- ceptual change has to be accepted regarding the factors determining the water needs of plants.

The New Agricultural Strategy-Its Contribution to 1967-68 Production

Review of Agriculture March 1969 ever, is : whether the assorted variety of opportunistic political groupings called united fronts and other Governments that rule the States will ever agree to dilute their powers in the manner suggested by Krishnaswamy, Only a bright optimist will answer this question in the affirmative. Another suggestion of Krishnaswamy relates to the creation of river boards (on the Jines of TVA in the USA) for each one of the major rivers and the linking of major rivers into a water grid. These river boards will be inter-State authorities and would not in any way interfere with the zonal councils. While, in matter of principle, I completely agree with Krishnaswamy's view of river development, none-the-less the accomplishments of DVC, for instance, have not been very satisfactory until now. The last essay "Regulating the Mar- SOMETHING fundamental and dynamic, with far-reaching consequences, has been introduced into the agricultural scene since 1965. However, there were previous periods, such as the end of the First Five-Year Plan, when optimism was similarly widespread. With this history in mind, the first rushes of enthusiasm regarding the New Strategy of Agricultural Development have more recently been tempered with caution. Some analysts are questioning the success of the high-yielding varieties programme at this early date [1, p A-l]. For example, the Agricultural Prices Commission has written :

From Protective to Productive Irrigation

Review of Agriculture March 1969 to meet the management needs of the new materials. Foremost among these is fertiliser. Without nutrient supplies there is no possibility for the farmer to innovate, and there will be no return on the public investment in rice research. The crucial need is for supplies of adequate quantities of the correct formulations to be available when needed at a market convenient to the cultivator. A combination of circumstances that still seems to elude the power of administration to effect.

Sleight of Arithmetic

Management by Objectives B L Maheshwari Short-Term Forecasting Samuel Paul Performance Budgeting A Premchand Inventory Control A P Saxena Computers as Sinews Mathal Joseph Ahmedabad Entrepreneur Howard Spodek Review of Management is published four times a year, on the last Saturday of February, May, August and November.

Computers as Sinews of Management

Review of Management February 1969 ready basis. Indeed, many of the involved personnel, have first of all, to be 'sold' on the need and importance of scientific inventory management.

Management by Objectives

B L Maheshwari Management by Objectives: A System of Managerial Leadership by George S Odiorne, Pitman, New How to Manage by Results by Dale D MoConkey, American Management Association, New York, 1965. Beyond Management by Objectives by J D Batten, American Management Association, New York, 1966. Improving Business Results by John W Humble, Management Centre Europe, Brussels, 1967.

Short-Term Economic Forecasting-Some Leading Indicators

Review of Management February 1969 book of abstractions. It was not written in the proverbial 'ivory tower'. Rather, it is a practical, down to earth, easy to understand and assimilate, 'how to' approach to effective leadership." Variations of this statement are found in the other books under review. The authors of these books are committed to the new system and their books are designed to convert others. The case histories given in them are success stories. As a result, they ignore the conceptual issues and do not display enough analytical depth and objectivity. Finally, the whole development of Management by Objectives has taken place in the context of Western, predominantly American, business management and some of the authors have chosen to portray it as a great bulwark of the strength of the free enterprise system. It goes without saying that however effective this approach may have been found elsewhere, there is no room for a turnkey operation. Indian managers must, therefore, analyse their current practices and the organisational and social climate in order to relate Management by Objectives to the Indian situation.

Performance Budgeting in Public Sector

A Premchand The principal handicaps in the budgeting system of the public sector are two: there is generally very little relationship between the financial outlays of the budget and the physical content of the programme proposed to be achieved, and the system of financial control is concerned more with cash transactions than with the cost of operations.

Inventory Management-Some Approaches and Problems

Review of Management February 1969 bility cost centres and cost analysis are needed. The 'responsibility cost' indicates the costs and results of operations by organisational units or on programme lines, the costs of inputs and also the outputs or the accomplishments of the organisation. Cost analysis, on the other hand provides the means by which the underlying responsibility and costs are summarised, rearranged and allocated. These data provide both an organisational unit orientation and a programme or product orientation.

Profit Reporting by Diversified Companies

S K Bhattacharyya The recent emergence of a large number of conglomerate companies with diversified product lines is largely due to acquisitions of other companies and the setting up of new activities as divisions within existing companies, Initial official opposition to such diversification has been overcome by court rulings and the attractions of higher profitability.

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