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Development Strategy for Electronics Industry-Ensuring Success of Technological Innovation

of date.'' "Moreover, foreign collaborators often change their models, with the result, that the components required for production of equipment under licence become difficult to obtain when their production in the country of origin is discontinued. Consequently, the indigenous industry will often be forced to stock large quantities of components to maintain the production of equipment under licence and for repairs." "A serious and undesirable feature of the present situation is that foreign collaborators often dictate the sources of procurement [of components] themselves. This is accepted as the Indian manufacturer does not possess enough design expertise, even alter paying for knowhow,' to be able to adapt equipment designs to use components available indigenously or in the world market at competitive prices. This largely annuls whatever reductions in cost and in foreign ' dependence are apparently achieved by going in for foreign'collaborations/' Taking its cue from the Bhabha Committee, the Electronics Committee has concentrated its attention, during the three and a half years of its existence, on placing contracts on laboratories, universities and companies for developing, what I shall for the moment call, 'knowhow'. As of today the Committee Has placed some 18 such contracts, The outlay on these contracts during the first year of actual funding, viz, 1969, has been around Rs 33 laths while that in the coming-year is about" Rs 1 crore. However, before the Electronics Committee came on the scene, and indeed even after, government agencies with major interests in electronics such as the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) had undertaken a number of D & D projects with their own funds oriented towards agency-specific goals. Unfortunately, no data is available on the total number of D & D projects tinder way in the country as a whole, the problems they are tackling and the resources that have been utilised by them.1 It is however possible to make a 'guesstimate' that during 1969 the total national outlay on electronics. D & D was of the order of about Rs 6 crores and that the number of scientists and engineers (but not supporting staff) engaged on it, again on an optimistic basis, was of the order of 7,000. These figures may be compared, in order to get some perspective, with the Rs 3 crores and 6,334 scientists and engineers, assessed as being engaged in electronics R & D in 1966.2 The question arises: have any of these projects reached the stage where even pilot plant or prototype production, utilising the .knowhow generated by them,, have been established? It is a matter of regret that, as far as those supported by the Electronics Committee are concerned, none except two can make sugh a claim to what is often used as a criterion of 'successful' D & D. The corresponding figures for projects undertaken as a result" of decision taken at the agency level are unfortunately not known. It is, however, possible to secure an overall national estimate from a consideration of the proportion of electronics output, other than of radio receivers, which is based on locally developed knowhow. I have computed this to be 40 per cent for the year 1966 (about Rs 6 crores in absolute value) M-149 Development Strategy for Electronics Industry Ensuring Success of Technological Innovation A Parthasarathi In an industry like electronics where technological changes are rapid, the demand of strategic self- sufficiency great and the current dependence on imported manufacturing technology acute, we just must devise ways and means of ensuring that the resources committed to domestic design and development pay off commercially.

Worker-Management Relationships in Japan

Koichi Niitsu The set-up in Japanese organisations is said to be quite different from that in Indian or Western organisations. The difference is not as mysterious as it is often made out to be.

Use of Computers and Operational Research-TELCO A Case Study

TELCO: A Case Study Asit Chandmal Operational Research techniques form an integral decision-making part of computerised information systems in TELCO.

Medium without Message

A Lot of Thin Air S K Bhattacharyya Glossed-Over Systems lshwar Dayal Computers and Operational Research Aslt Chandmal Worker-Management Relationships Koichi Niitau R and D and India's Industrial Future Ward Morehouse Foreign Collaboration, Research and Consultancy S S Tarapore Development Strategy for Electronics A Parthasarathi Review of Management is published four times a year, on tha last Saturday of February, May, August and November.

Foreign Collaboration, Indigenous Research and Development of Indian Consultancy Services

Development of Indian Consultancy Services S S Tarapore This paper is concerned with the question of building up a base of technological skills within India and with the crucial role of consultancy services in incorporating foreign technology within the country.

R and D and India s Industrial Future

Ward Morehouse The rapid growth of modern science and technology since Independence suggests that India is on the 'threshold' between 'colonial' science and 'independent' science. The opportunities and challenges lie within industry itself

Glossed-Over Systems

Ishwar Dayal Management Development and Management by Objectives by Andrew M Brown; Somaiya Publications, FOR the management of complex organisations, sophistication in diagnosis, analysis, and decision-making has become necessary. This is because of three major features of modern industry, viz, size, dependence on the appropriate mix of specialist and generalist knowledge and skills, and balancing of changing forces. The sources of data for decision-making, as well as the processes of acceptance of decisions by the managerial hierarchy, are varied.

Is Inadequacy of Institutional Credit a Problem in Changing Agriculture

B M Desai D K Desai An earlier study had indicated that farmers tend to substitute commercial hank credit for their own funds and/for other sources of finance, and that this substitution has no significant impact on farm production, This article is therefore based on the connected question: "Is inadequacy of the existing insiitu tional credit facilities a problem in changing agriculture?". The' question is important because of the Widespread notion that inadequacy of credit is a serious bottleneck in the adoption of the new technology.

Agricultural Co-operatives in Japan

Japanese Farm Economy JAPAN has been conceived by W W Rostow to be an economy in which 'a relatively narrow array of natural resources was harnessed by a diligent, strongly-motivated population to the best that modern technology could offer in a 60-year surge from say 1880 to 1980' ("The Stages of Economic Growth", Cambridge, 1967).

Setting the Perspective

Income Disparity and HYVP B K Chowdhury Concentration of Operational Holdings P K Mukherjee Is Lack of Credit a Problem? B M Desai D K Desai Impact of HYVP on Labour Market R K Lahiri Government Operations in Foodgrains S K Ray Improved Nutrition: A Shibboleth Examined Alan Berg Agricultural Co-operatives in Japan G C Mandal Review of Agriculture is published four times a year, on the last Saturday of March, June, September and December.

Increased Income and Improved Nutrition

a simple, conventional answer to the question "How do you provide better diets to children in poor societies?" More income. With economic growth and related increased incomes, nutrition problems, we are told, will solve themselves.

Concentration Ratio of Operational Holdings-Its Pattern and Variation

Its Pattern and Variation P K Mukherjee The structure of agrarian economy, as brought out by the land distribution pattern, is distinctly different in the paddy areas from that in the wheat areas. Within a State there is no significant variation in the pattern.


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