ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Concept of Planning A Case Study

In this paper we cite a case study of "planning'' at the Ahmedabad Branch of the Praja Bank. The study underlines how creative aspects of the planning process can suffer if planning is reduced to a mechanistic target-setting and budgeting exercise with or without formal use of environmental data.

Inter-Class Incidence of Taxation in Farm and Non-Farm Sectors in India

and Non-Farm Sectors in India S L Shetty The existing differential in the tax burdens of farm and non-farm sectors may appear to follow from the difference between their inequality patterns. For, it may be argued that under progressive taxation the greater the inequality in income the larger the tax revenue earned by the State. But there is a false premise here. The prevailing systems of taxation in the farm and non-farm sectors are entirely different in nature and progressiveness. In fact, land revenue which is the principal direct tax on the farm sector is at best a proportional tax, whereas the income-tax on the non

Investment in Agriculture A Cost-Benefit Analysis-Rejoinder

capitalist than a 50-acre holding cultivated extensively, growing say rain-fed millets. Grouping by size blurs scale effects in the following way. Take Table 1, the data on labour-hiring grouped by farm size. It may be that there a re some intensively cultivated, primarily wage-labour based (i e rich peasant) holdings of loss than 5 acres, which raise the average value of y for this size-group; while there are some extensive, primarily family labour-based (i e middle peasant) holdings of more than 10 acres which lower the average value of y for the more-than-10 acres size-group. The table would then understate the range, of variation of y, and therefore understate the extent of differentiation within the peasantry. The same data grouped by value of output, on tho other hand, would show a larger range of values of y, and give a more accurate idea of the differentiation.4 (3) (a) Mow do I "calculate surplus value created by wage labour considering that there is inevitably a large proportion of family labour going into production?" In my sample the top 1/3 of holdings (each producing output value at Rs 1 lakh or more) used no family labour at all, while for others the number of farm servants alone (excluding casual labour) exceeded family workers by multiples of 2.5 or more, the average number of farm servants per holding being 8. For the holdings with annual value of output of less than Rs 1 lakh, a small element of return to family labour is included; in short the rates of surplus value increase even more sharply with scale than my table indicates.

LONDON- Ripple and Wave but Not the Tidal Current

December 25, 1971 been wide-ranging. Gittings has re- ported from Peking, through The Guardian (London), that according to the Chinese the principal contradiction in the world today is that between Russian social-imperialism and the revolutionary movements of the third world. This new contradiction has re- placed the earlier one between US imperialism and the awakening peoples of three continents who swayed world politics in the fifties and the sixties. If this is so, and if Japan is induced to join the Sino-American game, then the progressive role of China in South- East Asia has ended.

Nationalism and Marxism

Nationalism and Marxism Vinayak Purohit THAT the demand for the dissolution of Vishal Pakistan was not a neo-im- perialist urge of the puny compradors of India, that American imperialism had recently taken too many body blows from Vietnam to pursue successfully its out-of-date policy of preserving the status quo in South Asia, that the Soviet Union had coolly calculated upon the non-viability of the old Pakistan and had no hesitation in utilising an opportunity for exposing the Si no-American collusion to its own advantage, that in the conditions of nuclear stalemate it was possible for the biggest post-War liberation movement to succeed in Dangla Desh, that with its 55 crores India was in a position to throw its weight decisively into the scales whether it was a permanent member of the Security Council or not, these and other aspects of contemporary reality were lost sight of by some elements of the Indian Marxist movement.

Unstudied Happening

Fertiliser Distribution and Use H B Shivamaggi Delivery of Canal Water in North India and West Pakistan W Eric Gustafson Richard B Reidinger Green Revolution and Farm Income Distribution Uma K Srivastava Robert W Crown Earl O Heady Inter-Class Incidence of Taxation in Farm and Non-Farm Sectors S L Shetty Expenditure-Elasticities of Intersectoral Consumer Demand R Thamarajakshi Capitalist Development in Agriculture Utsa Patnaik Investment in Agriculture: Cost-Benefit Analysis Samuel Paul Review of Agriculture is published four times a year, on the last Saturday of March. June, September and December Manuscripts Intended for publication should reach the Editor at least six weeks ahead of the date of publication.

Capitalist Development in Agriculture-Further Comment

spend on these products and (b) that the average propensity to spend on these products is rising with the total expenditure on all products. In the case of the agricultural products, nil the contrary, the marginal propensity to spend is lower than the average propensity to spend, and hence the average propensity to spend on the agricultural products must decline as total expenditure rises. This becomes clear when we study the percentage of consumption expenditure on agricultural consumption goods in the different expenditure classes of the rural and the urban sectors of the economy during 1960-61 ( ie, the sixteenth lound of the NSS).

Delivery of Canal Water in North India and West Pakistan

and West Pakistan W Eric Gustafson Richard B Reidinger The canal systems in North India and West Pakistan were set up by and large to prevent fa- mine, at a time when it seemed more effective to spread the water thinly to provide each district a measure of famine insurance rather than to depend on transporting grain from surplus districts to deficit districts in this largely pre-railway age.

Expenditure - Elasticities of Intersectoral Consumer Demand in India

Consumer Demand in India R Thamarajakshi The dynamics of the agriculture-industry linkages are determined, among other things, by the relative values of expenditure elasticities of inter-sectoral consumer demand. When investments are undertaken in a developing economy, they result through the multiplier in increased money incomes.

Green Revolution and Farm Income Distribution

Uma K Srivastava Robert W Crown Earl O Heady The hope had been cherished that the rapid increases in agricultural output especially foodgrains, as a result of the Green Revolution, would help trigger off general economic growth by raising the level of available savings. There was also good reason for such a hope. But crucial to its realisation is the capacity of government policy to use the Green Revolution's potential benefits to greatest advantage.

Market Price, Shadow Price and All That

Ranjit K Sau Despite all the suspicions that have been cast on its theoretical soundness and practical usefulness, the concept of 'shadow price' still lingers on in cost-benefit analyses.

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