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Patterns of Regional Development in UP

 paper Robotnik. LFEE, op cit 22 The Guardian, August 16, 1980, 23 See, Rethal, Zobn, "Intellectual and Manual Labour", MacMillan Press 1978; Bettleheim, Charles, 'Economic Calculation and Forms of Property'', Routledge.

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India J C Sandesara I PROPOSE to deal with Gupta and Gupta's reply1 to my comments2 on their paper3 in. two ways. I first take up their reactions to my comments, and then reiterate the significant points of my comments, which have not been attended to and finally consider the new data that have been introduced in their reply.

IMF Loan

Sanjaya Baru P R BRAHMANANDA'S reply (May 8) to my review of his monograph on the I M F Loan (March 27) is both provocative and amusing. In the first instance Brahmananda has replied in haste so that he has not only misread, and, therefore misrepresented, my points of criticism, hut he has also misled the leader once again which forces me to question again his claim to objectivity in this entire discussion. Brahmananda provokes and amuses also because he more often refutes my arguments with rhetorical questions than with hard tacts. Let me explain.

Some Nutritional Puzzles

Some Nutritional Puzzles C Asok Madhav Kulkarni ESTIMATES of the incidence of under- nutritional poverty are needed if one wants to use nutritional criteria for determining food production and distribution policy. Also, these estimates are useful to illustrate the food problem and its relative importance with respect to other related problems. Several studies have appeared in the last decade dealing with the incidence of poverty based on undernutrition. Noteworthy among these studies are those of (1) V M Dandekar and N Rath [1971] and P V Sukhatme [1978]. Dandekar and Rath in their well known study of 'Poverty in India' report that so massive is the scale of-poverty that about 40 per cent of the rural and 50 per cent of the urban population are not able to meet even their minimum energy needs to stay healthy and active. However, P V Sukhatme has pointed out that the above authors have misused the meaning of 'energy requirements. In particular, according to Sukhatme, the authors have mistaken the average energy need of an individual for the minimum needs ignoring the fact that energy needs vary between as well as within individuals over time even of the same age-sex group. Taking into consideration these variations and by making the best use of the available data, Sukhatme estimates the incidence to be 15 per cent in rural and 25 per cent in urban areas and that too on a conservative basis. However, V K R V Rao [1981] by making use of NSS data finds some Nutritional Puzzles' due to religiously accepting the figure for cut-off point used by Sukhatme. In this note an attempt is made to find out the root cause of these nutritional 'puzzles' while .simultaneously diseussing related matters in brief.

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India-A Reply

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India Poonam Gupta Sanjeev Gupta WE had in our paper [Gupta and Gupta, (1982)] presented estimates of the unofficial economy in India on a yearly basis for the period 1967 to 1978. For this purpose, we employed a technique suggested by Feigc [1979], that has been used to determine the size of the unreported economy in many developed countries including USA and Canada. The results had shown that the unreported activity as a proportion of official GNP has grown from 9.5 per cent in 1967 to nearly 49 per cent by 1978. In his comment, Sandesara [1982] argues that our estimates are on the high side. The purpose of this reply is to show that the theoretical basis of Sandesara's criticism is weak and his methodology inappropriate. Further, his analysis indicates a lack of understanding of the functioning of the unofficial economy. In the next section, we briefly summarise Sande- sara's analysis mainly to highlight its shortcomings. The last section gives the estimates of total economic activity (consisting of both official and unofficial) in India prepared by other researchers which point to the . fact that our estimates of unofficial economy are by no means over estimates.

Racial View of Underdevelopment

stacked up in the cellar or in gold or silver but are used routinely to conduct daily normal transactions. It is an indispensable 'input' into business operations of many individuals and corporations in India.

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India J C Sandesara IN their paper (January 16, 1982, pp 69-75), Gupta and Gupta have presented statistics of the size of unreported economy of India for 1967-68 through to 1978-79.l In this paper, we look at these statistics, in the context of other statistics given or implied in their paper and in the light of other relevant considerations, and conclude that their statistics may heavily outsize India's unreported economy.

Calorie Norm Controversy

Calorie Norm Controversy V M Rao M Vivekananda THANKS to the recent burst of controversy in EPW on the calorie norm, measurement of poverty

On Measurement of Undernutrition

raises two issues of vital concern. First, the share of agriculture in national income Has been "recently declining. The constant proportion of workforce in agriculture, therefore, implies a fall in relative income per worker in agriculture. Second, there has been accelerated growth of urban population and workforce. Urban workforce is mainly non-agricultural. A rise in the proportion of urban workforce without a corresponding increase in the proportion of non-agricultural worker obviously implies a decline in the share of industries and services in rural employment which is contrary to the objective of rural industrialisation. Revaluation of policies aimed at promotion of rural industries acquires Obvious importance in this context.

Orissa Aluminium Complex

working amongst the tribals are ensuring, through organised struggle, the abolition of these remnants and the spread of the 'free' wage form. 12 For details on indebtedness and the Palemode system amongst Thane tribals, see Report of the Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribal for 1964-65, pp 77-79; and Report of the Committee on Problems of Illicit Moneylending and Bonded Labour, Government of Maharashtra,

Peasant Organisations in South India

about the caste character of the work Peasant Organisations in South India ers of the Communist Party who were involved in organising the rural poor M S S Pandian of Thanjavur: "For them [Harijans], IN his reply (June 13, 1973) to my comment (January 31, 1981) on his original article (Tune 28, 1980), K C Alexander has chosen to misrepresent quite a few of my points arid hence his reply does not correspond to the actual points I had made. Even where he has attempted replies otherwise, they are not based on any substantive evidence. Let met take his points one alter another, in the same order maintained by Alexander in his reply.


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