ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Changing Profile of Punjab Agriculture

This article examines the overtime profile of Punjab agriculture and the impact of paddy–wheat monoculture on agroecology. It is argued that it becomes imperative to diversify the cropping pattern, especially replacing the area under paddy towards other alternative crops, for sustainable agriculture.

Income Support Schemes

The PM KISAN scheme provides `6,000 to farmers to procure inputs and other household needs. The scheme is criticised for providing too little support. Features of various income support schemes are compared. Mukhyamantri Krishi Aashirwad, Mukhyamantri Parivar Samman Nidhi and Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income Augmentation scheme have income redistributive feature across land size class. Schemes like KALIA, MPSN and Rythu Bandhu support tenant and agricultural labourers. In West Bengal, having Krishak Bandhu along with PM KISAN would have greatly helped farmers to absorb risk in farming.

Labour Partnership, Sharecropping and Tribal Migration

This paper discusses the distinct form of sharecropping arrangement known in Gujarat as bhagiya mazdoori involving migrant tribal households. The main purpose is to understand this institution in terms of its specific features as practised in north Gujarat positioned as it is in a changing agrarian system. The livelihood condition of the tribal sharecroppers in the source villages and their work and living conditions in the farms at the destination locations are the core themes of the discussion. The paper delineates relevant policy measures to prevent perpetuation of exploitative arrangements that bhagiya system represents.

Of Half-moon Nights and Peasant Tragedy

By reading rural distress and peasant suicide in Punjabi literature produced in the realist mode, this paper conducts the economic analysis of the fictional small peasant—an atomised entity divorced from his land, which is now simply a means of production in a capitalist agrarian market. It reads the production of Gurdial Singh’s award-winning novel Adh Chanani Raat (1972) as prophesising the long-term adversities concomitant with the productive excesses of the green revolution in Punjab. The novel argues for a model of heroism rooted in Punjabi social tradition and collective history, which struggles against this alienating influence of capitalist economic forces to find succour in an older way of life. Therefore, this paper attempts to study Gurdial Singh’s reworking of peasant consciousness as a “narrative of oppression” where the small farmer is a heroic figure because of his resilience in the face of inevitable tragedy.

A New Class Alliance in the Indian Countryside?

Processes of socio-economic differentiation alter balances of power. This article explores the possibility that the current wave of farmers’ protests partly reflects a resetting of class alliances in the Indian countryside centred on small farmers and farmer-labourers who now account for over 85% of farming households. It does so by returning to the new farmers’ movement mobilisations of the 1980s and 1990s, and comparing three key relations between then and now: relations between farmers and the state, between farmers and large capital, and relations within the countryside between larger and smaller farmers and landless labourers. Smaller farmers, it is argued, are now more likely to ally with farmer-labourers and the landless, who are in turn less dependent on larger farmers than they used to be because of the growth of non-agricultural wage labour. The neo-liberal Indian state’s pro-corporate farm bills mean that contradictions within the countryside are for now overshadowed by external contradictions. And if implemented, they will accelerate processes of socio-economic differentiation in ways that make a new centre of political gravity in the Indian countryside more likely.

Indebtedness among Farmers in Punjab

While debt among farmers is no longer considered undesirable, ever-mounting debt and reduced repayment capacity surely are. The existing literature has found a deep connection between indebtedness and suicides among farmers and perceived it as a reflection of growing agrarian distress. Based on the findings of a primary survey conducted in Punjab, we try to assess the debt position of Punjab’s farmers, and present the magnitude and burden of debt, highlighting the farmers’ debt repaying capacity. The source and purpose of credit are discussed in detail and the factors affecting indebtedness have also been explored.

Scale Neutrality in Indian Agriculture

Marginal and small farm sizes constitute more than 85% of the operational holdings in India. Several concerns regarding the sustainability, efficiency, access to formal sources of credit and the scale neutrality of such credit plague the smallholders. This study finds that the smallholders are efficient but the returns to them are woefully low, which threatens their sustainability. Further, the smallholders have to rely more on non-institutional sources for their credit requirement and often with a greater interest burden. In addition, the credit provided by formal sources is not scale-neutral. This posits a difficulty for policy praxis, which must urgently address these issues plaguing the smallholders.

Farmers’ Politics in West Bengal

After the end of 34 years of the Left Front rule, West Bengal has seen a renewed emphasis on agriculture. A decade-long ethnographic study conducted during and after the political transition unravels the reasons why such emphasis fails to benefit the small and marginal farmers, at places where...

The Smallholder in the Agriculture Market Reforms in India

Smallholders suffer from low marketable surplus, poor holding capacity, low bargaining power and huge transaction cost in marketing their produce. Agricultural markets in India have been subject to reform processes with the stated intention of improving market access and participation for the primary producers. The three legislations introduced in 2020 are the latest in that direction. This article critically analyses market reforms in India with respect to smallholders’ bargaining position. It also provides insights on the ways and means to improve market participation and the bargaining position of smallholders.
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