ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Rural Development

Multidimensional Deprivation Index and Spatial Clustering

Using a village-level data set, we create an index of multidimensional deprivation for basic amenities available in villages for various states of India and compare the performance of Maharashtra relative to other states. Surprisingly, rural Maharashtra lags behind even the supposedly underdeveloped states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Our index correlates well with numerous development indicators, including newly-born underweight children, per capita consumption, employment, and luminosity of night lights. The paper argues for using the multidimensional deprivation index as a metric for local and regional planning to bring about more equitable public provisioning in basic amenities within the country.

 

M S Swaminathan

M S Swaminathan contributed not only to agriculture and rural development in India but also helped other developing countries through his leadership of the International Rice Research Institute and many other international bodies devoted to research and practical application of advances in agricultural sciences with the primary objective of eliminating hunger and ensuring universal food and nutrition security.

The Sugar Industry

The sugar industry in Maharashtra has been undergoing a significant transition in its ownership structure, which is increasingly moving away from cooperatives to becoming private enterprises. The reform policies, which started in the early 2000s as part of deregulation, have been instrumental in this significant transition. The mechanism of such a shift is described in this article and the emergence of private players in the sugar sector of the state is explained.

Multiplier Effect of MGNREGA-induced Inflow of Money

The core objective of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is to promote rural development and reduce poverty by supplementing private employment in the rural Indian economy with public employment. This paper is an attempt to verify the performance of MGNREGA by studying four sample villages from West Bengal. The study has built a social accounting matrix from which the output and employment multipliers for each village are computed. However, it shows the demand-side impact, whereas the realisation of MGNREGA’s potential positive multiplier effect depends on supply-side support, which is lacking in the villages. The paper, therefore, suggests supply-side initiatives in MGNREGA through a focus on productivity enhancement measures.

Recognition of Development Rights under the FRA, 2006

Recognition and respect for basic services under Section 3.2 of the Scheduled Tribe and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is an important concern for local development, and livelihood improvement. This article discusses how forest diversion for local basic services through an integrated approach anchored by state and local institutions has produced tangible benefi ts for local communities and forest conservation in the study areas.

The Wicked Problem of Sustainable Bamboo Management

From poor person’s timber to rich man’s green gold, bamboo is truly the “cradle to coffin timber” for the people of various strata and geographies. Bamboo is a gift of nature and India is blessed with the world’s largest bamboo resource. But the existing utilisation of the bamboo sector in the country remains underdeveloped and its share in domestic consumption and international trade is negligible. With depleting natural resources and changing policy scenarios, such as the ban on single-use plastic, bamboo is increasingly looked upon as the most preferred alternative wood material. It has thousands of well-documented applications in daily life. Despite having such enormous potential for both nature and society, the bamboo industry in the country is still at a nascent stage. Although bamboo management may appear to be a “wicked problem” with no immediate solution, changing policy regimes and growing interest of various stakeholders can potentially provide a way to revive the bamboo sector.

Rural Economic Growth and Emerging Pattern of Rural Towns

The two features of structural transformation visible in India are an increase in the overall gross domestic product and per capita incomes, enabled by the shift away from agriculture to other sectors or occupations with higher productivity; and greater urbanisation. An attempt is made to examine the emergence of small towns or urbanised villages in Gujarat and Rajasthan. The states depict a disparate pattern of rural economic transformation and varying levels of urbanisation. The emerging urban hierarchy is contextualised within the process of economic growth and transition, and the composition of urban growth along with the locational features of the emerging towns are studied. The underlying causes responsible for the nature of urban growth in the two states highlight the need for a regional focus of policy.

 

Performance of Self-help Groups in India

Since its inception, the performance of the self-help group programme in the area of rural development and women’s empowerment has been admirable. But, although the programme is being implemented in many parts of the country, its success has been patchy. This study evaluates its performance during 2011–19. It focuses on two aspects of the programme’s performance: its geographical expansion and the growth of non-performing assets. It shows that the programme has been more successful in well-off states, while in the central and north-eastern regions, it faces severe difficulties. The mounting NPAs in these regions require immediate intervention.