ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Population

The Indian Diaspora

The two major population estimates of the Indian diaspora in the 21st century are critically examined. Both estimates were made by the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, and appear to be definitive documents on the subject. The article also provides a brief historiography of the population estimates of overseas Indians/Indian diaspora since India’s independence.

Short- and Long-run Dynamics of Total Fertility Rate in West Bengal

Despite India achieving sub-replacement fertility and projecting stable future population growth, there exist significant variations in the total fertility rate among its states. One such state, West Bengal, exhibits a concerning TFR of 1.4, posing a threat to sustainable population growth. This research paper aims to identify the determinants contributing to the declining TFR in West Bengal. Our study reveals that while per capita income has long-term implications for TFR, it does not have a short-term effect. Conversely, the total population significantly impacts TFR in both the short and long run. The share of the primary sector in the state’s domestic product is found to be inconsequential in shaping TFR.

Population, Health Status, and the Sustainable Development Goals

The fact sheets with key results of the National Family Health Survey-5, conducted in 2019–21, from 36 states/union territories were released recently by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In this article, the authors highlight the emerging population and health issues from the NFHS-5 to monitor the country’s progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 and the key policy issues to strengthen the population and health programmes in the country.


Need for Equalising Endowments

The article notes that the persistence of inequality, as observed over two centuries, undoubtedly points towards its origins in endowments, which perpetuates inequality in such a consistent manner. The lesson derived from this scrutiny highlights the need for focusing on equalising endowments, particularly the intangible ones, to sustain betterment and attain convergence in the economic landscape.


Labour Force and Employment Growth in India

This study analyses the changing structure of the labour force and employment in India using the Employment and Unemployment Survey (2011–12) and the Periodic Labour Force Surveys I and II (2017–18 and 2018–19). The estimates indicate that there was a mere improvement in employment from 2017–18 to 2018–19; however, as this was accompanied by a decline in the size of the workforce between 2011–12 and 2017–18, this does not indicate recovery. The unemployment rate, especially that of youth, remains at a historic high. A remarkable decline in the share of agriculture in the workforce without a corresponding increase in the non-agricultural sector indicates a somewhat distorted structural transformation. A sizeable portion of the female population has been withdrawn from the labour and workforces.