ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Gandhi s Inclusivism

Gandhi's Inclusivism Sanjib Baruah Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action by Dennis Dalton; Columbia University Press, New York, 1993; pp 279 + xii.

One-Dimensional View of Dalit Movement

voyage of Vasco da Gama who was piloted by Abdul bin Majid, presumably a Gujarati Muslim" (p 8); later that Honavar was the principal port of the Nayaka of Ikkeri (p 22); or again of the Portuguese capture of Diu in 1554 (p45): repeatedly that Nagapattinam was fortified by the early 17th century; on p 249, the incident attributed to I638 look place in 1634; the Mughal ship GanjSawai is throughout called Ganj-i-Sawar and so on. Indian and Arabo-Persian names are spelt throughout with careless abandon'. "Muhamad, 'Taqui", "Meah Mizany". etc. It" there were a strong new argument in the book, or a strong quantitative foundation las we expect from Om Prakash's forthcoming volume in the New Cambridge History of India) such detail could be dismissed as 'mere detail'. But the book is a work of narrative history, and hence has to be reliable as narrative. Here it falls short of expectations. This said, it must he said that the book docs have its merits, most notably its useful bibliographical essay. Certain simple ideas are also set out, although at somewhat tedious length, and (for a book of this size) with a surprising amount of repetition. Still, we have a sense that if only BARRING a few exceptions both in Marathi and English, recent studies on the dalit movement in Maharashtra are either sequential in nature or theoretically insensitive. Jayashree Gokhale's book under review offers a theoretically sensitive approach involving criticism of the cultural- ideological approach adopted by M N Srinivas, Mark Juergensmeyer, Eleanor Zelliot. Owen Lynch and Michael Moffall. According to Gokhale, the cultural- ideological approach treats the untouchables as a striking case of submissiveness (p 34). On the contrary, the author argues, the untouchables did not always accept their lot with stoic obedience and docility. They, particularly the mahars, protested some times violently against repressive Hindu social order (p 34). The author criticises thec ultural- ideological view of the dalit movement for not taking into consideration the overlap of caste and class dimensions of the mahar movement in Maharashtra. Therefore, the author, basing her theoretical framework on the approach of Kathleen Gough and Emmanuel Terry, believes that the historical development of the mahar community reveals the format had allowed him toArasaratnam might just have engaged his peers and even younger historians in discussion. This is reassuring because members of the Indian Ocean club have not always been so open- minded: another recent book by Arasaratnam and Aniruddha Ray, titled Mosulipainam and Catnhay (Munshiram Manoharlal, 1994), possesses the apparatus of footnotes, but practically refuses to acknowledge the existenceof other historians who have written earlier on these subjects.

Difficulty of Understanding Gandhi

Difficulty of Understanding Gandhi Sudhir Chandra Colonialism/Tradition and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political Discourse by Bhikhu Parekh; Sage Publications. New Delhi; pp 288. hardback Rs 190. paperback Rs 85.

Political Economy of Secularism-Rediscovery of India

Rediscovery of India Nasir Tyabji As it was in Europe, secularism in India is an intrinsic part of the process of the emergence of a modern identity of the people of a multi-language and multi-ethnic society, the necessity for which is being continuously generated by industrialisation and urbanisation: The emergence of this identity, however, has been hampered by the failure at the political level: the inability to evolve political units appropriate for the expression of regional aspirations, to entrench and extend the process of agrarian reforms, and to unify and modernise the systems of personal law, etc.

Ambedkar in Retrospect

volumed work was conspicuously on display, and selling. The authors, as teachers and scientists, are not hide-bound traditionalists, but that they firmly insist on is that classical medicine is a heritage that must be subject to critical study, and drawn on where necessary. Hence it is not a thing of fixity and permanence; rather it continues to grow asymptotically with modem medicine.

Rise of the Dalits and the Renewed Debate on Caste

For long consciousness of caste was the preserve of the brahminic upper castes. Today something quite different is happening: the very sufferers from the system (including the caste system) are invoking caste identity and claims.

Gandhi, Ambedkar and Separate Electorates Issue

Electorates Issue DN The objective of Gandhi's "epic' Yeravada fast was to force the dalits, under Ambedkar, to accept their position of being subordinated to the politically dominant sections of the Hindu community.

Gandhian Non-Violent Protest-Rituals of Avoidance or Rituals of Confrontation

Rituals of Avoidance or Rituals of Confrontation? Eugene F Irschick This essay examines the historical traditions which gave rise to Gandhian non-violent protest in order to understand the meaning of it as ritual In particular the author looks at the traditions which generated the Gandhian strategy of hartals or voluntary closing of shops, picketing, and fasting as ways to force authorities to come to terms with their demands. The presentation draws on material from both pre-colonial India and the period of early British penetration in the Tamil-speaking area of Madras Presidency.

Subjects and Masters

Wrong Focus M S A Rao Village Studies in the Third World edited by Biplab Dasgupta: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 1978, pp 227, Rs 60, VILLAGE studies came into prominance after the emergence of independent nations in the third world. Sociologists and social anthropologists, economists and especially agricultural economists and political scientists have been interested in the problems of rural development and understanding local level processes and changes. The Institute of Development Studies of the University of Sussex has made a significant co bution in bringing together 2,000 exising studies of villages in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The Institute, in collaboration with the Agro-Economic Research Centre of Delhi, organised a conference in December 1974 and the present volume is based on the papers submitted to the conference.

Gandhi and Agrarian Classes

Gandhi treated British colonial interests as a distinctly non-Indian category and so long as peasant interests were adversely and directly affected by government policies and actions, Gandhi defended peasant interests with vigour. But when peasant interests were circumscribed by indigenous landed interests, the Congress under Gandhi counselled mutual trust and understanding and compromised continuously in favour of Indian vested interests.

Political Economy of Indian Nationalism 19th Century Roots

Indian Economic Thought: Nineteenth Century Perspectives by B N Ganguli; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co Ltd, New Delhi, THE potentialities and the limitations of the John Company had, respectively, provoked Thomas Mun (in 1664) and Adam Smith (in 1776) to make major contributions to economic thought. These in turn had their impact on the Company's prospects and policies. Later, thanks to the influence of Mal- thus and James Mill on the British- Indian administration, the newly-discovered Ricardian rent theory had an application in agrarian policy-making. Britain's efforts to transform India into a useful hinterland of the imperial industrial economy found varied expression in the physiocracy of Philip Francis, Cbrnwallis's permanent settlement aiming at an English-type rural capitalism, Munro's caricature of the French peasant proprietorship and the ruinous modernisation drive of the early and mid-nineteenth century utilitarians. Official rethinking after 1870, as inspired by Henry Maine,1 promoted once more a conservative approach that, in its concern for continuity in the processes of change from tradition to modernity in India's 'non-acquisitive' society recommended selective curbs on private property rights. British economic thinking that had an anchorage in, or a direct bearing upon, the British-Indian economy, in the above- mentioned manner in the Company's days and after have been studied by quite a few scholars.2 Attempts at probing into the roots of the 19th-century Indian economic thought that reacted to the colonial intellectual climate and realities are also not lacking.3 B N Gangult's book under review is the latest and a more exhaustive attempt in the lineage.

Satyagraha and Democracy

Satyagraha and Democracy Arun Shourie IT has become the custom nowadays for some to assert that direct action in the form of satyagraha does not have any place in a democracy, I take it that even those who make this assertion allow that satyagraha is legitimate in a dictatorship: Almost by definition a dictator would have choked up all the channels through which the people might have their voice heard and so, unless one asserts that the people have no right at all to . press their views, one must recognise the legitimacy of satyagraha in that situation.

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