ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Environmental Accounting in India

Does the present income accounting system represent the real value of the wealth of the economy? If not, how do we evaluate the performance economy? How can the present evaluation method accommodate different aspects of the economy, society, and the environment? If these aspects are not considered in the evaluation process, can it be justified socially or environmentally? In this paper, we discuss the limitations of conventional income accounting, recent developments in environmental accounting at the international level, the progress and challenges of environmental accounting in India, and the way forward.

How Unstable Are the Sources of Livelihood?

This paper, based on the data from the annual Periodic Labour Force Survey, reflects on the lack of sustainable sources of livelihood and the phenomenon of multiple activities pursued simultaneously. A thorough analysis of the quarterly data suggests that in the rural areas, workers largely dependent on agriculture are compelled to shift to other activities in the off season. The nature of employment also varies, particularly in the urban areas. The occupational choice model estimated based on the quarterly data is indicative of changes in the marginal effect for workers of a given caste or an individual with a certain educational attainment. Certain social categories and workers with less educational attainments are more susceptible to changing probability of joining a particular activity and adopting multiple activities.

Navigating through Democracy

Politics of the Poor: Negotiating Democracy in Contemporary India by Indrajit Roy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, New York, US, Melbourne, Australia; New Delhi and Singapore: 2018; pp xxi + 521, price not indicated.

The Lost Decades

The government must reimagine the fundamentals of the economy in favour of equality.

The Many Uses of Constitutions

The Gun, the Ship, and the Pen: Warfare, Constitutions and the Making of the Modern World by Linda Colley, London: Profile Books, 2021, pp 502, ₹ 2,280 (hardcover).

Adherence to Pandemic Ethics during India’s Covid-19 Lockdown

Adherence to pandemic ethics complements, regulates and refines public health emergency law enforcements. It is integral that ethics should not only be limited to the content of the policies but also to the processes. The two Indian laws used to fight the Covid-19 pandemic are either antiquated or inappropriately applied. In this context, the article analyses the adherence of countrywide lockdown to the existing principles of ethics.

India and the RCEP

COVID-19 has widely affected global supply and value chains, and specific sectors around the world. In this scenario, the options for India to optimise its regional and global value chain linkages with the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership are examined, which in turn could aid in its post-pandemic recovery.

Globalisation and the Indian Farmer

The article analyses the impact of globalisation on income and levels of living in the rural sector. It also discusses the changes in India’s stance on food security in global negotiations.

Famines in India

The end of the dryland famine around 1900 was of great significance in Indian history. Famine historiography, preoccupied with the Bengal famine of 1943 and shortages of food, obscures why the dryland famine ended and, therefore, misreads why they happened in the first place. This paper suggests that the dryland famines were caused primarily by a shortage of moisture, and secondarily, a shortage of food. Uncoordinated interventions targeting water supply and wider access to water, roughly occurring between 1880 and 1930, played a significant role in their end. It draws the inference that drought-induced famines in India’s past were not caused by food distribution failure, but water supply failure. As episodes of extreme dryness become more likely due to climate change, this history has relevance.

School-based Tobacco Health Hazards Awareness Initiative in India

Prevention and control of diseases are neglected cost-effective measures with a long-term advantage. There is an urgency to focus on preventing tobacco use, the single largest preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. In India, tobacco use is predominantly in the form of smokeless tobacco. Adolescents are the most susceptible group for initiation of tobacco use. Our experience of conducting a tobacco (smoking and smokeless tobacco products use) hazards awareness programme for adolescents in Class 8 to 10 in Mumbai, from 2014 to February of 2020 for 15,475 students (including both boys and girls), has shown encouraging results. These students can in turn spread the message. Currently, there is no uniform school-based tobacco use prevention programme in India. Our initiative needs consideration for systematic nationwide implementation for reducing future NCD burden. With the changed scenario due to the pandemic, we are exploring a strategy of training teachers to implement this initiative with online tools.

Crisis behind Closed Doors

The impact of the national lockdown due to COVID-19 on domestic workers in New Delhi and Gurugram is examined. Through extensive surveys with members of three labour unions, it was found that not only were domestic workers able to find less work, but were also paid lower wages, while unable to access government schemes or financial or in-kind support from their employers. This points to a dire need for policies that protect domestic workers’ interests.

The COVID-19 Pandemic and A New Sociology of Social Distancing

An otherwise socially unacceptable and culturally sensitive phenomenon like social distancing has become a buzzword in everyday discourse due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In Indian tradition, the practice of reasonable closeness and acceptable physical proximity is valued as against the idea of isolation and social distancing. The upsurge in COVID-19 cases and consequent prescriptions for social distancing have pointed to an interesting and unnoticed sociological consequence of the pandemic alongside its impact on the economy and livelihood.

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