ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Household

Household Pharmaceutical Disposal Practices in India

Action towards scientific planning and management of pharmaceutical waste by controlling it from its source, especially the households, is necessary. We propose a four-item strategic plan for proper disposal of household pharmaceutical waste: fostering pro-environmental consciousness and behaviour; policy framing and implementation; targeted continuous ecopharmacovigilance; and integration of circular economy principles.

Consistency in NSSO Employment–Unemployment Estimates Using NSS 68th Round and PLFS Data

The unemployment rate in the country increased sharply to 6.1%, as per the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2017–18 data, from 2.2%, based on the National Sample Survey, 68th round, 2011–12. A few have raised questions regarding methodological differences, mainly concerning the second-stage household sample stratification procedure not adopted in proportion to the respective population share. In the PLFS, this stratification is based on the number of matriculates per household and, in the NSS 68th round, on the level of per capita expenditure. It is found that the results obtained in each of these data sets are robust for the strata on the basis of which the surveys were conducted, respectively, and hence, both are reliable and comparable.

Poverty and Deprivation in India

Building on the asset-based indicator, this paper estimates deprivation in India. The results suggest that there is a difference in the regional ranking of poverty based on the long-term picture of vulnerability provided by the asset-based indicator of deprivation. It also shows that while consumption poverty could identify the poor as a group, it cannot identify who among the poor are suffering from long-term deprivation, thus seeking a prompt policy attention.

 

Household Consumption Expenditure Inequality in Rural India (1993–94 to 2011–12)

The comparative role of determinants of household-level consumption expenditure inequalities (henceforth, inequalities) in rural India between two sub-periods, 1994–2005 and 2005–12 are examined, using three rounds of the National Sample Survey Consumer Expenditure Survey. The changes in the components of consumption expenditure and population characteristics are explored that explain inequalities during the two sub-periods, which represent distinct policy environments. We use both a priori and regression-based decomposition methods for the analysis. We find that there is a complete reversal of the role of education in explaining inequalities. It shifted from being an inequality-increasing factor during 1994–2005 to an inequality-equalising factor during 2005–12. This reversal is induced by decreasing consumption returns to education due to the depressed job market. The role of locational factors has increased in explaining the increase in inequalities over time. The non-food components induce an increase in the overall inequalities via an increased expenditure on durables. The within-group component contributes the most to the level of and change in inequalities.