ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Foreign Direct InvestmentSubscribe to Foreign Direct Investment

FDI and Red-tapism

The trend of foreign direct investment inflow in India is examined, focusing on internal trade, state-by-state allocation, and country-by-country allocation. It evaluates the effectiveness of existing FDI regulations and analyses evidence from authoritative reports like the Reserve Bank India’s Fact Sheet on FDI, UNCTAD’s World Investment Report 2018–22, and the COVID-19 period. The analysis aims to examine the success of government initiatives and the manufacturing sector’s impact on the economy. 

FDI Inflows into Select Emerging Market Economies

Empirical evidence explaining foreign direct investment inflows into big emerging markets from 2000 to 2018 is investigated by unitising the econometric methods like panel unit root tests, panel cointegration tests and panel estimation with the generalised method of moments. Causal effects are also checked for each of these variables.

Booming Foreign Direct Investment in R&D

India witnessed a massive sixfold jump in foreign direct investment in research and development in 2021. However, its distribution across different industrial sectors and regions was very skewed. Therefore, this article analyses the trends in sectoral composition and spatial distribution of FDI in R&D across Indian cities.

Remittances Reach $100 Billion

Resilient remittances will help cushion the impact of volatility in foreign investment inflows.

Outward FDI and Cross-border M&As

Although the new foreign direct investment policy and other policy packages, including “Make in India,” is expected to tap more foreign savings and better technology and transform the Indian economy into a manufacturing hub, most successful firms are investing abroad. Given this context, this paper makes an effort to understand the trends and nature of outward foreign direct Investment by Indian firms and their implications. The paper argues that though the Indian overseas acquiring manufacturing firms perform relatively better than their counterparts, its adverse impact on the trade deficit and balance of payments need to be tackled.

Technology Diffusion through Foreign Direct Investment

This study examines technology diffusion resulting from foreign direct investment in the domestic manufacturing sector in India, by employing unit-level panel data from 2000 to 2007, covering all medium- and large-size manufacturing enterprises. The attempt is to empirically capture evidence of FDI technology spillover effects through two key mechanisms: horizontal spillover and vertical spillover. Vertical spillover effects can be further divided into backward linkages and forward linkages. Technology diffusion can also be the result of both short- and long-term spillover effects.


Budget 2021–22 and the Manufacturing Sector

The growth rate of manufacturing value added has been declining continuously since 2016–17 and it had become negative in 2019–20, even before the intensification of the Covid-19 crisis, suggesting that the budget needs to address the structural weaknesses of the economy. The 2021–22 budget has largely adopted the supply side corrective measures in the form of increased capital expenditure on infrastructure. The potential of infrastructure investment in reviving the sector and the implications of the proposed resource mobilisation for financing the increased capital expenditure are discussed. In the context of increased global fragmentation of production, the feasibility of promoting domestic production through tariff protection is also discussed.

FDI Spillovers on Technical Efficiency of Indian Manufacturing Firms

The impact of foreign direct investment on technical efficiency of Indian manufacturing firms during two sub-periods, 1994–2001 and 2002–10, is investigated. Using stochastic frontier analysis, this study shows that domestic firms gain efficiency from foreign skill spillovers and backward linkages with foreign firms in the first sub-period. However, evidence from the second sub-period indicates a significant adverse impact of oreign-owned firms on domestic firms. It may be noted that flows of FDI increased mainly in the 2000s. The study also shows that technology gains occur through internal research and development expenditure, and through purchase of imported raw materials and capital goods rather than through purchase of imported drawings and designs.

The Potential of Participation in Global Value Chains

Low demand, high trade costs, poor infrastructure, unstable law and order and the lackadaisical nature of government impede the economic growth of the North Eastern Region. This prolonged underdevelopment points to the urgent need of the NER to integrate with the global economy for faster economic growth. Such an integration and subsequent economic transformation can be made possible through participation in global value chains. The NER has comparative trade advantage in producing labour-intensive products, and participation in services-based GVCs, particularly tourism, can be very profitable for the NER.

Majoritarian Rationale and Common Goals

Looking at existing policy instruments and goals, and the economic and social outcomes they promise to deliver, it is argued that majoritarian politics and social and cultural outcomes are not part of fringe thinking. The politics of hate actually works to build a consensus for ruling class economics. It is not surprising, therefore, that the only "nationalist outlook" of our times is to stand firmly behind the policy programme for the global investor.

Silence on Investor –State Disputes Debate

The Law Commission of India's 260th report contains a seemingly innocuous suggestion to include a clear clause for consent to arbitrate investment disputes in India's 2015 draft Model Bilateral Investment Treaty. There is an intriguing absence of any explanation for this suggestion, which is curious, especially when viewed in the context of the global public debate on investor-state dispute settlement clauses. This suggestion requires robust public debate in India and must not silently sail past.

Foreign Direct Investment in India in the 1990s

This paper documents the trends in foreign direct investment in India in the 1990s, and compares them with those in China. Noting the data limitations, the study raises some issues on the effects of the recent investments on the domestic economy. Based on the analytical discussion and comparative experience, the study concludes by suggesting a realistic foreign investment policy.


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