ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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​The Architecture of Online Classrooms

The online classroom, with its emphasis on intangible concepts and symbols, opens up unseen relationships between time, knowledge, culture, and society in determining a student’s identity.

Budget 2021–22

In the context of the pandemic, we evaluate budget 2021–22 and its six-pillar framework. We found lack of clarity as regards allocations under each of the pillars, and hence we undertook to group ministry-wise allocations under each of the pillars. This categorisation was even more liberal than the one that the finance minister herself spelt out. Despite that, we find that the budget fell short of what was required for problems facing the Indian economy.

Learning and Language

In low-cost private schools in India, English as a medium of instruction attracts children of poorly educated parents with a low-income background. A primary survey in Delhi and the National Capital Region finds that mediating primary-level education through an unfamiliar language poses language barriers and adversely affects the learning outcome. The agency in using English for communication is limited. The learning deficit is undetected through successive grades in the primary level due to translation- and memorisation-based teaching processes, and focus on textbook-based exercises. The study finds that parents do not get a fair exchange in return for committing their limited resources towards education.

Dalit Women and Colonial Christianity

The paper focuses on the history of the first three Bible women, Mary Wesley, Martha Reuben, and Bathsheba, who came from marginalised communities in Rayalaseema, and emerged as new leaders of social change in the context of colonial modernity and Christianity in the region. The emergence of a modern profession of Bible woman for Dalit women in the 1870s was transformative, opening doors of education, learning, and transforming them into local leaders. Bible women played a pivotal role in the history of Dalits, gender, and missions by shaping the life and community of Dalits and spreading Christianity in Rayalaseema.

We Need Teachers with Intellectual Humility

Teachers ought to be of flexible mind, recognising that there is no “final” conclusion in matters concerning teaching and learning.

School Education in NEP 2020

Released 34 years after the previous policy on education, the National Education Policy, 2020 is framed in a context that is unrecognisable from that of the past policies. This article examines the discursive framework underlying the current policymaking process.

Theory and the Possibility of ‘Dalit Studies’

A response to “The Impossibility of ‘Dalit Studies’” by Ankit Kawade (EPW, 23 November 2019) points out that the possibility of living the life of the mind can be realised in Dalit studies itself if experience is posited as the necessary condition for theorisation.

Great Exoduses

Migration has helped India weather many a crisis and also ushered in new challenges.

Sanitation and Hygiene in India

Using data from the India Human Development Survey, this examination of toilet possession and personal hygiene in India shows that the strongest influences on households in India having a toilet were their circumstances: standard of living, educational level, and whether they possessed ancillary amenities. However, toilet possession depended also on households’ social environment; households in more developed villages were more likely to have a toilet than those in less developed villages. Open defecation is due to a lack of development and not because caste, ritual pollution, and untouchability instil in rural Indians a preference for defecating in the open.

Reimagining the Idea of a University in India

In response to the editor’s column, “University as an Idea’’ by Gopal Guru (EPW, 11 January 2020) and Swatahsiddha Sarkar’s article, “The Idea of a University in India” (EPW, 4 April 2020), this article seeks to begin a critical examination of the normative ideas that were presupposed in the earlier articles.

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