ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Importance of Landowning Non-cultivating Households

There is an increasing importance of landowning households that do not cultivate and a significant presence of urban households owning rural land, which constrains the growth of the agrarian economy, as such households have low incentives to invest in agriculture, and tend to use land for residential purposes, reducing the cropped area. Agricultural labour households tend to lease in land and become cultivators.

Doubling Farmers' Incomes by 2022

How realistic is the objective of the Government of India to double the income of farmers by 2022? Is there a precedent? From estimates of change in income of agricultural households over the period 2003-13, this article suggests what needs to be done to achieve a doubling of real incomes. A focus on income from cultivation alone will be inadequate. Policy aimed at increasing net income from animal farming will be key.

Vietnam's Experience with Hybrid Rice

Vietnam is the only country in the humid tropics in Asia where the rate of hybrid rice adoption has been growing. What are the distinct factors responsible for this unique development in hybrid rice R and D in Vietnam - which has similar agro ecological, political, socio-economic and institutional features as China? Would hybrid rice adoption be sustained in the long run in Vietnam? This paper reviews the development of hybrid rice in the country in the context of the development of the overall rice economy. It reports the findings of a sample farm household survey on the profitability of cultivating hybrid rice over the inbred high-yielding varieties.

Hybrid Rice in Bangladesh

The government of Bangladesh permitted four private seed companies to import seeds of rice hybrids for the 1998-99 boro season to make up the shortage of rice seeds after the floods in the 1998 aman (monsoon season rice) season, since there were no locally bred rice hybrids This paper primarily evaluates the farm-level performance of imported rice hybrids, based on representative sample farmers who grew hybrids during the 1999 boro season. The study findings support the view that hybrids were introduced in Bangladesh without a clear deployment strategy and without scientific evaluation of new rice hybrids under farmers' conditions before importing seeds.

Profitability of Hybrid Rice Cultivation

Hybrid rice cultivation has not increased significantly in Karnataka since the introduction of hybrids in the state in the mid-1990s. This study focuses on the profitability aspects of hybrid rice cultivation based on farmers' experiences during the 2000-01 crop year. Hybrid rice was found to be higher yielding but less profitable than existing high-yielding varieties. The paper provides reasons for lower profitability and explains the constraints in hybrid rice expansion based on farm-level data.

Hybrid Rice Cultivation in the Philippines

The development and promotion of hybrid rice is a strategy being pursued by the government to attain self-sufficiency in rice supplies and improve farmers' welfare. On-farm experiments have shown significant yield advantage of hybrid rice over the best-inbred rice varieties. The government launched a special hybrid rice promotion programme during 1999-2000 and has been providing subsidy on seeds as a special incentive to farmers. The private sector, including a Chinese company is also actively involved in research and seed production. But the adoption of hybrid rice is still at a low level. This paper provides some insights into the constraints to expansion of hybrid rice technology.

Hybrid Rice in Tamil Nadu

Nine years after release of the first rice hybrid, its adoption rate in Tamil Nadu was found to be too meagre and scattered to measure its impact. The present study aimed at documenting farm-level insights into why hybrid rice has not made a dent on the rice sector in Tamil Nadu. Results show that there was not much progress made over the past decade in terms of developing farmer-acceptable rice hybrids and achieving the higher yield gains through hybrid rice under farmers' field condition in Tamil Nadu.

Hybrid Rice in Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh was the first state in India to develop and release two rice hybrids during the 1993-94 dry seasons. Hybrid rice technology was projected as the harbinger of another rice revolution in the state, as the yield potential of existing varieties was declining. However, the initial experiences of farmers who grew hybrid rice in the state indicated that it was not profitable relative to existing modern varieties. Recently, scientists have claimed that the initial experiences of hybrid rice cultivators are no longer relevant as many new rice hybrids of better quality were developed and marketed by the late 1990s. The current study tests, the widely propagated hypothesis that these new rice hybrids have been accepted by farmers in Andhra Pradesh.

Muthanga: The Real Story

The tragic events at Muthanga in Kerala earlier this year were a culmination of adivasi frustrations over the failure of successive governments in the state to restore adivasi land despite several judicial directives and the existence of laws enacted for the purpose, such as the KSA Act of 1975. Instead attempts were made to amend the act which was later wholly repealed. The protest of the adivasis at Muthanga met with brutal repression by the government. But chastened by the public anger at the police action, the government now remains immobilised in the face of a series of fresh land occupations by adivasis in the Kerala part of the Western Ghats. If the government were to handover the land in Muthanga to the adivasis and make other lands available to landless adivasi families and bring all adivasi regions under Schedule V of Article 244 which provides for participatory self-rule and autonomy, it would herald a new era in adivasi history.

Agricultural Land Use in the Plains of Assam

The three aspects of agricultural land use examined here relate to extensive cultivation, intensive cultivation and underutilisation of cultivable lands.

Probing the Past

The Hoe and the Axe: An Ethnohistory of Shifting Cultivation in Eastern India by Ajay Pratap; OUP, New Delhi, 2000; pp XIV+158, Rs 475.

Objective Function in Economic Models of Decisions on Production

Analysis of shifting cultivation in Tripura in the 19th century indicates that the 'full belly' type of models - where the objective is considered to be a fixed target level of consumption - approximated realistically with the cultivators' production motivation. However, in the present day, due to the demands of the consumerist culture and dwindling land available for shifting cultivation, swidden agriculture, even if engaged in full time, is not able to produce more than the minimum acceptable level of output.
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