ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Child Labour and Social Exclusion

A four-good, four-factor general equilibrium trade-theoretic model is utilised that incorporates social exclusion, consumption disaggregation and child labour. In this framework, trickle-down economics fails and under very plausible conditions, socially excluded families and their children are impoverished by capital accumulation. Policies such as a ban on child labour have differential effects on the economy. Specifically, a ban on child labour in the traded goods sector necessarily improves the welfare of the socially excluded families and their children. However, a ban on child labour in the non-traded goods sector has ambiguous implications for the welfare of the excluded group. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of disaggregation and social exclusion for policymaking.

The Intersection of Caste and Child Labour in Bihar

Bihar has the third-largest number of child labourers in the country. Although there have been numerous legislations and schemes to address the issue, they could not provide a lasting solution. The need of the hour is to look at the inextricable link between caste and the children who form the workforce, and to devise solutions accordingly.

The Problem of Child Labour Needs More Than One Solution

Policy measures to counter the problem of child labour in India will not succeed if it is only treated as an economic issue.

Silenced and Marginalised

An attempt has been made to demonstrate the linkages between the socio-economic-cultural marginalisation of children and their educational marginalisation. This is achieved through a thick description of the living and working conditions of the children, and the interplay between the factory, residence, school, market, family and other support systems, in order to gauge the social reality of these children.

Education of Children and Civil Strife in Chhattisgarh

This field study from Bijapur district of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh, ascertains the current status of participation of children from different social groups in elementary education and explores the specific factors caused by civil strife, based on interviews with and observations of children, parents, educational administrators and government functionaries.

Corporate Governance and Child Labour

The web version of this article corrects a few errors that appeared in the print edition. Reviewing case studies that examine the role of corporate governance initiatives to eliminate child labour from the production process, the authors examine the important distinction between eliminating and ending child labour from production networks as the former deals with the demand-side while the latter deals with the supply-side of the child labour equation. They conclude that while corporate initiatives can deal with the demand-side, government development and social policy intervention is required to deal with the supply-side.

Child Labour in Tamil Nadu in the 1980s

This paper sifts certain important sources of secondary data, in its efforts to present certain broad descriptive features of the phenomenon of child labour in Tamil Nadu and its distribution across well-defined socio-economic groups classified by gender, sector-of-origin and caste, and its dispersal across space. As NSS data for 1987-88 suggest, the magnitude of child labour in Tamil Nadu appears disturbingly large, with nearly 11 children out of every 100 in the workforce. Tragically, this very large presence of orderly, systematic child labour and child illiteracy, together with their thorough dispersal across space, has rendered the phenomenon of child labour an unremarkable, everyday occurrence. The concerns of society and the state remain limited to certain specific occupations in certain specific locations, to the neglect of other occupations and locations which merit at least equal attention.

Labour of Children

Children’s Lifeworlds: Gender, Welfare and Labour in the Developing World by Olga Nieuwenhuys; Social Science Press, New Delhi, 1999; pp 228, Rs 425 (hardback).

Cultural Stereotypes and Household Behaviour

To improve levels of girls' education, it is vital to widen the definition of child labour beyond wage employment. At present, there is little recognition of the economic contribution of girls to the economy and little effort has been made to get girls out of work and into school. There also remain long-standing stereotypes and norms that seek to discriminate against the girl child. However, the picture is not all bleak, for efforts at the grass roots level are afoot, wherein the NGOs have worked hand-in-hand with villagers to send their girls to school with very dramatic results.
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