ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Caste Inequality

Caste Inequalities in Access to Regular Non-farm Jobs and the Likely Implication of the Industrial Relations Code

This paper attempts to highlight the extent of employment insecurity and informality among the formal regular workers in the formal non-farm sector and examines the differential data outcomes across various caste groups. It also highlights the likely implications of the various provisions of the newly enacted Industrial Relations Code, 2020 on the access to the most secured jobs across different caste groups.

Income and Inequality across Rural–Urban, Occupational, and Caste Divides

The evolution of income in India from 2014–19 is analysed, and it is found that the lower end of the income distribution has experienced significant losses—the bottom ventile shows not only a decline in income share of ~41% but also a negative real average income growth of -5.5% per annum. Further investigating the composition of this part of the distribution using rural and urban splits, it is found that even as income shares at the bottom of the urban distribution have increased over time, those at the bottom of the rural distribution have decreased—income share of the bottom decile of the rural income distribution declined by ~43%, and the real average income growth of this decile was -5% per annum. The bottom ventile of the consolidated Indian income distribution is composed primarily of rural incomes and therefore the decline in real incomes is essentially a rural phenomenon.