ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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A Study on Functional Efficiency of Electronic National Agriculture Market in Selected Mandis of Odisha

Odisha is predominantly an agrarian economy. Around 50% of the state’s population fully or partially depends on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Any reforms in the existing agricultural marketing system could benefit the people to a greater extent. The current study is undertaken to analyse the impact of the Electronic National Agriculture Market on market arrival and price of the commodities in the selected Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees, and on the incomes of the farmers. It also highlights the difficulties by farmers to market their agricultural produce. Findings of the study show that e-NAM is still at a nascent stage in the state. The government needs to focus on infrastructural development, providing training to farmers, and research and development activities for better functioning and benefits of e-NAM.

Missing Linkages in the Electricity–Water Nexus in Indian Agriculture

Agriculture electricity supply has been the Achilles heel in the context of electricity policy and subsidy in India. The study summarises all the electricity consumption methods and numbers in the major agricultural states by state electricity regulatory commissions and researchers. Clear disparities in electricity consumption can be seen for some states and crops in the numbers summarised. It highlights the issues with the current methodologies and proposes to develop better methods for estimation of energy consumption in agriculture.

Farm Laws

This article analyses the issue of extending minimum support price coverage to major food crops. Given the utility of public procurement and buffer stocks during the previous crises, MSP procurement may be continued for rice and wheat but a shift to direct payments is needed for non-staple crops.

Sources of India’s Post-reform Economic Growth

This paper analyses the sources of India’s economic growth in terms of industry origins, inputs, and productivity during 1994–2018, comparing the pre- and post-global financial crisis periods. Manufacturing was one of the main contributing sectors to aggregate growth of the total factor productivity and gross value added in the post-GFC period. The results stress the need for proactive policies to support agriculture, manufacturing, and market services sectors.

Electronic Agricultural Spot Markets

The electronic spot market has introduced technological innovations to agricultural commodity market trading through the electronic National Agriculture Market. To assess the role of the electronic spot market in price discovery, this paper explores the price efficiency test between select commodities’ spot and futures markets. While we find that the spot plays an instrumental role in price formation and transmission in selected markets, eNAM is yet to augment price-setting for farmers. We propose improvisations in the spot market design that align institutional structures, governance mechanisms and incentives and strengthen spot market infrastructure to enhance farmer participation.

Farm Size and Farmers’ Income, Consumption, and Poverty in India

Using unit-level data from the 70th National Sample Survey round Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households, the paper seeks to determine, for major states, the minimum size of cultivated land at which the average monthly income of farmer households from cultivation exceeds their average monthly consumption expenditure and the minimum farm size at which the average monthly income from all sources exceeds their poverty-line-equivalent income. Further, it examines the contribution of different sources towards their total income across farm-size categories and the incidence of poverty among such households. It then estimates the income support for those households that are not able to meet their average monthly consumption expenditure and which are below the poverty line.

A Quantitative Assessment of the EU–India Free Trade Agreement

With EU–India clinching a post-Brexit trade negotiation, the present paper proposes to examine whether the free trade agreement between the two regions would increase production efficiency and thereby social welfare. Using the partial equilibrium model, the study reveals that the EU–India FTA yields less positive trade and welfare gains in India after Brexit specifically, for consumer, industrial, and capital goods, whereas it would still be in India’s interest towards the specific benign impact of an FTA in raw materials, intermediate goods, and agricultural goods. From the policy perspective, India is not well-served by its pursuit of protectionist agenda and instead should push for trade liberalisation as a better path for the global trading system.

The Proposed Deregulation of India’s Sugar Sector

The deregulation of agricultural markets and its scope for benefits to farmers are examined using the system generalised method of moments to estimate India’s supply equations of sugar and sugarcane. An alternative theoretical framework is used to generate the supply equations—different from Nerlove’s Adaptive Expectations-based supply response function or the assumption of profit-maximising firms operating in a freely competitive market—which fits into the sugar sector’s regulatory system in India. The findings suggest that the proposed deregulations will not reduce the sugar sector’s cyclicality nor will it create a win-win situation for farmers and mills. Instead, the mills will benefit at the cost of farmers.

Does Public Procurement Benefit Paddy Farmers?

This paper investigates the impact of public procurement on paddy farmers in Bihar. Whether farmers’ access to public procurement agencies led to higher price realisation by them is examined here. The paper used a comprehensive telephonic survey of 1,976 farm households in eastern India (Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal) and employed an endogenous switching regression model to estimate the impact of public procurement on farm harvest price of paddy. The findings reveal that farmers gain by selling to public agencies. However, they are unable to receive the minimum support price.

Capitalising Nature

While producing “cheap” nature, capitalism produces climate change that challenges the entire process of capitalising nature.

Agrarian Crisis and Farm Incomes in India

Farm Income in India: Myths and Realities by A Narayanamoorthy, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2021; pp 384, `1,695.

 

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