ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Structural Dimensions of Malgovernance in Bangladesh

This paper attempts to trace the roots of the governance problem in Bangladesh to the structural features of its polity. These features include the existing politics of confrontation, weaknesses in the practice of parliamentary democracy, the malfunctioning of political parties, the role of money and muscle power in politics, and the rent-seeking collusion among the political parties, state machinery and vested commercial interests. Efforts for improving governance must be directed towards persuading political parties of the advantages of reforms in the existing political institutions. The paper also advocates civic actions in creating widespread awareness of the benefits of better governance, thus raising the political costs of malfeasant governance.

NGO Sector in Bangladesh

The social development scene in Bangladesh is characterised by a strong presence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The NGOs emerged following the war of liberation to help the communities in distress as part of post-war rehabilitation. Afterwards, with assistance from foreign donor agencies, they expanded their activities to deliver a variety of services including microcredit, essential healthcare, informal education, women empowerment and rights advocacy. This paper traces the evolution of the NGO sector in Bangladesh and evaluates its role in social development.

Economic Transformation and Social Development in Bangladesh

Bangladesh embarked on structural adjustment towards the mid-1980s and in the following decade, its economic performance notably improved. To consolidate this progress on economic and social fronts, Bangladesh needs to strengthen its institutions of economic and political governance. The following collection of 12 papers sheds light on some important aspects of the economic transformation and social development taking place in Bangladesh.

DOCUMENT-Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation of Persons-Displaced as a Consequence of Acquisition of Land

Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation of Persons Displaced as a Consequence of Acquisition of Land Ministry of Rural Development I Introduction 1.1 With the advent of the New Economic Policy, it is expected that there will be large scale investments, both on account of internal generation of capital and increased inflow of foreign investments, thereby creating an enhanced demand for land to be provided within a shorter time-span in an increasingly competitive market ruled economic structure.

Displacement and the Law

Usha Ramanathan The paradigm of development that has found favour with planners makes displacement of large numbers of people, even whole communities, an unavoidable event. The utilitarian principle of maximum happiness for the maximum numbers has been invoked to lend respectability to making the lives of communities into a cost in the public interest The law is ill-equipped to counter this attitude and in fact abets it by lending the force of state power.

Dislocation and Rehabilitation-Defining a Field

Defining a Field Veena Das Three different but interrelated sets of issues in resettlement research in sociology/social anthropology are addressed here. The first set deals with the manner in which the disciplinary orientations of anthropologists have privileged certain questions. The second set addresses the relevance of research on questions of social policy. And the third set delves into the problematic area of priorities in research, and ethical issues influencing public policy.

Machkund, Upper Kolab and NALCO Projects in Koraput District, Orissa

in Koraput District, Orissa William Stanley Since the 1970s mainstream Indian industries have begun exploiting the resources of the Eastern Ghats, a large portion of which lies in Orissa. This has led to severe environmental degradation with significant proportions of the population, largely tribals, being displaced. Comparative studies of displacement, compensation and rehabilitation in three projects in Koraput district highlights the need for a uniform, but flexible, policy on resettlement and rehabilitation.

Economic Perspectives on Resettlement-and Rehabilitation

and Rehabilitation Sangeeta Goyal What constitutes adequate and appropriate resettlement and rehabilitation of people displaced by development projects has been the subject of considerable debate. This paper presents the case for a national policy on resettlement and rehabilitation and discusses different principles that have been proposed as possible bases for such a policy.

Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation-Locating Gender

Locating Gender Enakshi Ganguly Thukral Since displacement is a traumatic experience for everyone undergoing it, how does it affect women differently? If whole families are being affected, why should there be a need to focus separately on women? A review of existing studies on displacement and rehabilitation reveals little information on the gender dimensions of the problem. Almost all analyses on displacement and policies on relocation assume the household or the family to be the smallest unit of convergent interests where the benefits and burdens of policies are shared by all members. Yet there is evidence today that the burden of change is far greater for women and that they have even less access to the benefits of development than do men.

Whose Nation The Displaced as Victims of Development

The Displaced as Victims of Development Smitu Kothari Efforts at minimising displacement or improving resettlement will only be marginal, palliative and temporary if they are not contextualised in a wider socio-political context Three contentions support the argument: first, that the current patterns of economic development which are constantly invoked to justify the forced eviction of people all over the country, are themselves incompatible with the goals of creating wider conditions of equity and social security. Second, despite constitutional mandates, in an overwhelming number of cases, national and regional interests violate the interests of politically and economically weaker groups and individuals. Third, political and ecological solutions sought must recognise the need to both democratise the control over the resources and processes of production and regenerate the degraded ecological resources.

Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation-Objectives and Principles

Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation Objectives and Principles B K Sinha The Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation addresses itself primarily to the needs of disadvantaged communities and proceeds from a basic assumption that displacement involves a trauma which cannot be fully compensated, but can be mitigated to a large extent in physical and economic terms. Among other things, the policy involves a commitment to ensure that displaced persons are better off after than before displacement, and tries to capitalise on displacement as an instrument of positive change. However, it suffers from a number of deficiencies.

Displacement due to Mining in Jharkhand

Mathew Areeparampil The history of the indigenous people of Jharkhand is one of struggles against outside exploiters, who have gradually reduced them to a subordinate position in their own land. With the expansion of mining activities, especially with the opening of 50 new coal mines in the area to achieve the targeted production by 2000 AD, land degradation, air, water and noise pollution will attain alarming proportions. This will have serious economic impact upon the villages and their agrarian population.

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