ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Trade, Food Aid and Food Security

This paper argues that trade liberalisation, which permitted the import of rice and wheat by the private sector, has enhanced national food security in Bangladesh. In particular, it highlights the positive contribution of rice imports from India in recent years of major production shortfalls. The paper also makes a case for a flexible rice trade policy to protect farmers from the potential disincentive effects of continued food aid and low-cost commercial imports.

Rice Economy of Bangladesh

Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in attaining near self-sufficiency in the production of rice. This paper traces the transformation of the rice economy of Bangladesh over the past two decades. It examines the factors behind the growth in rice production and the role of market-oriented policy reforms, particularly in respect of the liberalisation and privatisation of agricultural input markets. The paper argues in favour of strengthening the role of the private sector in input markets while emphasising larger allocations of public resources for agricultural research and water resource development.

Rural Non-Farm Economy

The contribution of non-farm activities to generation of employment and growth of rural incomes in the early stages of development is well recognised in the development literature. For Bangladesh, available official statistics do not allow an analysis of the structure and growth of rural non-farm economy, as the data is not available separately for rural and urban areas. This paper uses data available from two national level sample surveys of rural household to analyse the change in the structure of the rural non-farm economy and its contribution to the growth and distribution of rural incomes in Bangladesh during the 1990s.

Impact of Trade Liberalisation

This paper examines the impact of trade liberalisation in particular, and of economic deregulation in general, on economic growth and employment generation. The rapid growth of ready-made garment industry - and, to a lesser extent, that of export-oriented shrimp production - are discussed as evidence of direct beneficial impact of increased trade openness. Besides, trade liberalisation also indirectly contributed to stimulating other parts of the economy, thus contributing to pro-poor growth.

Indo-Bangladesh Economic Relations

The paper looks at the various aspects of Indo-Bangladesh trade relations, including cross-border illegal trade, the comparative trade regimes in the two countries, investment cooperation and the implications of the proposed Free Trade Agreement. It particularly explores the prospects and ways of increasing Bangladesh's exports to India, thus addressing the existing trade imbalance. The paper concludes that mutually beneficial agreements are facilitated if the various aspects of economic cooperation are seen in a comprehensive framework and if there is willingness in both countries to compromise and take a long view.

Grameen Bank, Microcredit and Millennium Development Goals

This paper traces the evolution of the ideas and practice of microcredit as pioneered by the Grameen Bank. Over the years, microcredit programmes in Bangladesh have grown, providing a wide range of services to meet the economic and social needs of its citizens, mostly poor women. It comes up with suggestions regarding the emerging issues of financial self-reliance and institutional sustainability of microcredit programmes.

Health and Population

This paper reviews Bangladesh's achievements in health and population, and examines the role of government policy-making in bringing about this significant social change. Emerging challenges in the sector are highlighted and the strategies for state provision of health and family planning services in view of these challenges and the pro-poor development agenda are discussed. The paper concludes that reducing socio-economic inequalities in health outcomes and improving aggregate health indicators further will be extremely difficult in the future without significant transformation in quality of care and management of service provision.

Achieving Universal Primary Education

Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in expanding primary education, especially for girls, despite continuing prevalence of widespread poverty and social devaluation of women and girls. This paper argues that underlining this success is a confluence of both demand- and supply-side factors involved in bringing about a profound social change. It explores the changing structure of economic opportunities and gender relations affecting parents' perception of the value of female education. The challenge now is to improve the quality of education that may prove more difficult than the expansion of access.

Structural Dimensions of Malgovernance in Bangladesh

This paper attempts to trace the roots of the governance problem in Bangladesh to the structural features of its polity. These features include the existing politics of confrontation, weaknesses in the practice of parliamentary democracy, the malfunctioning of political parties, the role of money and muscle power in politics, and the rent-seeking collusion among the political parties, state machinery and vested commercial interests. Efforts for improving governance must be directed towards persuading political parties of the advantages of reforms in the existing political institutions. The paper also advocates civic actions in creating widespread awareness of the benefits of better governance, thus raising the political costs of malfeasant governance.

In voluntary Resettlement-Survey of International Experience

Survey of International Experience Roli Asthana Involuntary resettlement consists of two closely related yet distinct processes: displacing people and rebuilding their livelihoods. This paper beginning with a brief discission of the Scudder-Colson relocation theory which has greatly influenced resettlement theory and policies in many countries goes on to review international experience, using a risk model which shows how impoverishment can occur as a result of displacement.

DOCUMENT-Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation of Persons-Displaced as a Consequence of Acquisition of Land

Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation of Persons Displaced as a Consequence of Acquisition of Land Ministry of Rural Development I Introduction 1.1 With the advent of the New Economic Policy, it is expected that there will be large scale investments, both on account of internal generation of capital and increased inflow of foreign investments, thereby creating an enhanced demand for land to be provided within a shorter time-span in an increasingly competitive market ruled economic structure.

Displacement and the Law

Usha Ramanathan The paradigm of development that has found favour with planners makes displacement of large numbers of people, even whole communities, an unavoidable event. The utilitarian principle of maximum happiness for the maximum numbers has been invoked to lend respectability to making the lives of communities into a cost in the public interest The law is ill-equipped to counter this attitude and in fact abets it by lending the force of state power.

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