ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Exploring Safe Sex Awareness and Sexual Experiences of Adolescents in Patna

This article reports findings from a study of school- and college-going adolescent girls and boys in Patna that explored their awareness of sexual matters and safe sex, and their experience of sexual relations. The article correlates this awareness and experience at the individual, family and peer levels. Maternal education and parental supervision of adolescent activities played an important role in promoting awareness among girls, suggesting that parenting issues are critical. Further, programmes that apprise parents of the role they play are needed.

Migration, Youth and HIV Risk: A Study of Young Men in Rural Jharkhand

This article analyses the sexual practices of young migrant and non-migrant men in Palamu district of Jharkhand in the context of hiv awareness. Based on a field study and using statistical analyses, the authors find that, contrary to popular stereotype, both migrant and non-migrant youth lack hiv awareness and practise "risky" sexual behaviour. They argue that hiv awareness policy must sensitise itself to the prevalence of "sexual networks" and concentrate advocacy drives in these areas.

Maternal Healthcare Seeking among Tribal Adolescent Girls in Jharkhand

This article presents evidence from a cross-sectional survey on the extent of maternal healthcare seeking among married adolescent tribal girls in Jharkhand and the factors associated with this proclivity. The study findings clearly show that maternal healthcare seeking is limited. A substantial proportion of girls did not receive any antenatal services; nearly all delivered at home and only a small proportion received a post-partum check-up. The findings, based on a primary survey in Lohardagga district in the state, are intended to inform the development of policies and programmes that address the maternal and child health needs of this group in the country.

Women's Experience of Childbirth in Rural Jharkhand

This article seeks to enhance our understanding of childbirth-related practices among rural women in Jharkhand and the obstacles they face in seeking appropriate care. It documents women's experience of childbirth from their own perspectives, and the perceptions of providers regarding birthing practices. It also describes women's perceptions of complications experienced during childbirth and the actions taken to address these problems, and explores the obstacles women face in accessing appropriate and timely care. The findings are intended to bridge the gap between policy and programme makers (and implementers) on the one hand, and poor, rural women - for whom the services are provided - on the other.

Quality of Abortion Care: Perspectives of Clients and Providers in Jharkhand

This paper explores the quality of care received by women seeking abortion services in Jharkhand, a state in which access is limited and evidence about abortion-related care sparse. It explores clients' perspectives of the quality of services as well as their experiences of seeking abortion care. It also discusses perceptions of abortion providers on the quality of care.

Caste and Economic Discrimination: Causes, Consequences and Remedies

This paper provides a theoretical introduction to the study of discrimination with particular reference to the caste system. It sets the stage for the four empirical papers that follow, by highlighting the ways in which caste persists as a system of inequality that burdens the Indian economy with inefficiencies in the allocation of labour and other critical resources, reducing the full development of human capital in society. Far from disappearing as the economy modernises, discrimination remains a problem which, for reasons outlined here, is not amenable to self correction, but rather requires interventionist policies to remedy.

Where the Path Leads

This study attempts to trace the differential pathways that dalit and non-dalit students from comparable elite educational backgrounds traverse in their journey from college to work. While the training they receive in the university world is quite comparable, dalit students lack many advantages that turn out to be crucial in shaping their employment outcomes. Dalit students support the affirmative action policy completely, which allows them to break their traditional marginality. Our findings suggest that social and cultural capital (the overlapping of caste, class, family background and networks) matter a great deal in the urban, highly skilled, formal and allegedly meritocratic private sector jobs, where hiring practices are less transparent than appear at first sight.

In the Name of Globalisation

This paper draws on interview data to analyse the attitudes of employers/hiring managers in India's organised private sector towards the caste and community attributes of their potential employees. We focus on the role ascriptive qualities play in employer perceptions of job candidates, arguing that they persist despite a formal adherence to the importance of merit. Antagonism toward reservations, as a mechanism for promoting employment for scheduled castes, is articulated as a principled commitment to the modern virtues of competition and productivity.

Caste Discrimination in the Indian Urban Labour Market: Evidence from the National Sample Survey

This paper uses National Sample Survey data to examine the wage gap between higher castes and the scheduled castes/tribes in the regular salaried urban labour market. The main conclusions we draw are (a) discrimination causes 15 per cent lower wages for SC/STs as compared to equally qualified others; (b) SC/ST workers are discriminated against both in the public and private sectors, but the discrimination effect is much larger in the private sector; (c) discrimination accounts for a large part of the gross earnings difference between the two social groups in the regular salaried urban labour market, with occupational discrimination - unequal access to jobs - being considerably more important than wage discrimination - unequal pay in the same job; and (d) the endowment difference is larger than the discrimination component.

The Legacy of Social Exclusion

This article examines the prevalence of discrimination in the job application process of private sector enterprises in India. The study is based on a field experiment where authors replied to job advertisements in major English dailies sending three applications to each call - as an upper caste Hindu applicant, as a dalit and as a Muslim. Using statistical analysis they assess the data and find that discriminatory processes operate even at the first stage of the application process.

Banking Sector's Output in National Accounts: Measurement Issues

The revision of the system of national accounts of 1993, due by 2007-08, is expected to bring about several conceptual and computational changes. The impact of such changes on the financial sector's contribution to the gross domestic product seems to be quite significant. These changes are conceptually intricate and their implementation would also be challenging. This paper presents a prospective view of the ensuing changes as debated in international forums. In addition, two key issues, namely, the valuation of GDP of the banking sector at constant prices and the treatment of non-performing loans of banks in national accounts are discussed. The paper also highlights that the adjustment of financial intermediation services, indirectly measured, for the incidence of non-performing loans will have significant effects on the estimated macroeconomic aggregates on financial activities.

Service Producing Manufacturing Units and Their Impact on Sectoral GDP

Manufacturing services are characterised as outsourced parts of a total production process and comprise output of those manufacturing activities that are performed on the physical inputs owned by units other than the units providing the service. According to standard industrial classifications, these are included in manufacturing. Sixty-four per cent of the unregistered manufacturing establishments in India are, in fact, engaged - more often than not solely - in providing manufacturing services. Generally, these activities are treated as "manufacturing" while estimating domestic product or supply side aggregates, but as "services" while estimating expenditure or use side aggregates. This paper presents a profile of the manufacturing services providing segment of the unregistered manufacturing sector and briefly dwells on the ambiguities inherent in the accepted definitions of "manufacturing" activities and "services". It illustrates the implications of the dual treatment in estimating sectoral distribution of domestic product and concludes that distinguishing manufacturing services from other manufacturing activities in the industrial classification might help resolve this issue as well as related problems in a wide range of applications.

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