ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Displacement and the Law

Usha Ramanathan The paradigm of development that has found favour with planners makes displacement of large numbers of people, even whole communities, an unavoidable event. The utilitarian principle of maximum happiness for the maximum numbers has been invoked to lend respectability to making the lives of communities into a cost in the public interest The law is ill-equipped to counter this attitude and in fact abets it by lending the force of state power.

Dislocation and Rehabilitation-Defining a Field

Defining a Field Veena Das Three different but interrelated sets of issues in resettlement research in sociology/social anthropology are addressed here. The first set deals with the manner in which the disciplinary orientations of anthropologists have privileged certain questions. The second set addresses the relevance of research on questions of social policy. And the third set delves into the problematic area of priorities in research, and ethical issues influencing public policy.

Machkund, Upper Kolab and NALCO Projects in Koraput District, Orissa

in Koraput District, Orissa William Stanley Since the 1970s mainstream Indian industries have begun exploiting the resources of the Eastern Ghats, a large portion of which lies in Orissa. This has led to severe environmental degradation with significant proportions of the population, largely tribals, being displaced. Comparative studies of displacement, compensation and rehabilitation in three projects in Koraput district highlights the need for a uniform, but flexible, policy on resettlement and rehabilitation.

Economic Perspectives on Resettlement-and Rehabilitation

and Rehabilitation Sangeeta Goyal What constitutes adequate and appropriate resettlement and rehabilitation of people displaced by development projects has been the subject of considerable debate. This paper presents the case for a national policy on resettlement and rehabilitation and discusses different principles that have been proposed as possible bases for such a policy.

Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation-Locating Gender

Locating Gender Enakshi Ganguly Thukral Since displacement is a traumatic experience for everyone undergoing it, how does it affect women differently? If whole families are being affected, why should there be a need to focus separately on women? A review of existing studies on displacement and rehabilitation reveals little information on the gender dimensions of the problem. Almost all analyses on displacement and policies on relocation assume the household or the family to be the smallest unit of convergent interests where the benefits and burdens of policies are shared by all members. Yet there is evidence today that the burden of change is far greater for women and that they have even less access to the benefits of development than do men.

Whose Nation The Displaced as Victims of Development

The Displaced as Victims of Development Smitu Kothari Efforts at minimising displacement or improving resettlement will only be marginal, palliative and temporary if they are not contextualised in a wider socio-political context Three contentions support the argument: first, that the current patterns of economic development which are constantly invoked to justify the forced eviction of people all over the country, are themselves incompatible with the goals of creating wider conditions of equity and social security. Second, despite constitutional mandates, in an overwhelming number of cases, national and regional interests violate the interests of politically and economically weaker groups and individuals. Third, political and ecological solutions sought must recognise the need to both democratise the control over the resources and processes of production and regenerate the degraded ecological resources.

Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation-Objectives and Principles

Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation Objectives and Principles B K Sinha The Draft National Policy for Rehabilitation addresses itself primarily to the needs of disadvantaged communities and proceeds from a basic assumption that displacement involves a trauma which cannot be fully compensated, but can be mitigated to a large extent in physical and economic terms. Among other things, the policy involves a commitment to ensure that displaced persons are better off after than before displacement, and tries to capitalise on displacement as an instrument of positive change. However, it suffers from a number of deficiencies.

Displacement due to Mining in Jharkhand

Mathew Areeparampil The history of the indigenous people of Jharkhand is one of struggles against outside exploiters, who have gradually reduced them to a subordinate position in their own land. With the expansion of mining activities, especially with the opening of 50 new coal mines in the area to achieve the targeted production by 2000 AD, land degradation, air, water and noise pollution will attain alarming proportions. This will have serious economic impact upon the villages and their agrarian population.

Tribal Resistance in the Chhechhari Valley-A Field Report

A Field Report Nita Mishra For the last 40 years, the army has used vast areas in the Chhechhari Valley (also known as Netrahat) for various military exercises. The recent proposal of the 23 Artillery Brigade to acquire for a period of 10 years large tracts of land for afield firing and artillery practice range has prompted organised resistance of the tribals in the region against the inevitable displacement While their movement rests on a strong case, the discriminatory policy of the government may yet overcome people's resistance.

Public Policy Responses to Development-Induced Population Displacements

Population Displacements Michael M Cernea The forced displacement of populations caused by many infrastructural development programmes epitomises one category of disruptive changes that may occur as by-products of economic growth. Now should adverse consequences of development programmes be treated? What are the actual response patterns that can be distinguished, encouraged or rejected? This article addresses the roles and actual responses of mainly, though not exclusively two of the key social actors that participate in this process, namely, social scientists and governments. Population displacement calls for structured public policy responses as well as for continuous attention from social scientists.

Mental Health Consequences

of Displacement and Resettlement Byron J Good A broadly defined mental health perspective, one that incorporates an understanding of social and behavioural problems along with mental illnesses, as well as quite specific models of prevention, and of mental health services can have important implications for the development of resettlement and relocation policies.

Vasava Identity in Transition-Some Theoretical Issues

Some Theoretical Issues Roxanne Hakim Resettlement to the Vasavas, a community of largely subsistence farmers in Gujarat, involves a physical move from the hills to the plains which restructures the way the community views itself as well as the way it is viewed by others. Resettlement demands the restructuring of production and consumption patterns, which the 'dungri' (hill people) Vasavas view as the essence of their distinction from the 'deshis' (plains people). Thus while they do not perceive a threat to their identity, as they see it, from the adoption of deshi dress or religion, they are concerned about the restructuring of production and consumption patterns which resettlement will involve.

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