ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Programming of Management by Objectives

A V Srinivasan Management by objectives is an extension of Taylor's philosophy to the level of an organisation. Involvement and participation in management by objectives is possible only at the higher level. Management science, nevertheless, offers effective techniques which could be used in planning the execution of management by objectives.

The Missing Identity

B L Maheshwari THE behaviour of a society, like that of an individual, is determined by its subjective perception of the objective reality. The key symbols, slogans, norms, myths and peculiarities of behaviour of any society are the products of the problems and challenges with which that society is grappling at a given point of time. However, ideology, in its manifold manifestations, provides the frame of reference for perception of the reality and the self-image of the society. Thus, development involves "transition from one set of values and practices to another", and a study of this evolution is an important part of political analysis. Since the elite in any society command the resources in the society and influence the thinking and behaviour at the mass level, the values and practices of the elite arc the dominant factors in determining the evolution of a society. Hence, students of political development concentrate on the study of the nature and significance of the different types of elites in the society.

Role of Advertising in Industrial Marketing

Sanat Lahiri Advertising of industrial products wilt demand far greater attention than has been devoted to it in the past. Some of the basic rules for consumer goods advertising are just not valid for industrial products.

Industrial Planning-Past Experience and Future Tasks

Past Experience and Future Tasks Yoginder K Alagh A specific argument against the industrial planning policies of the last three Plans is that they have led to declining productivity in the industrial sector. This paper argues thai existing evidence does not conclusively prove this contention. Indications of contrary evidence exist, hut further work is necessary before final judgments can he made.

Problem of Marketed Surplus of Cereals

Kalpana Bardhan This paper suggests an indirect method of estimating the quantity of cereals marketed by the agricultural sector. The authors analyse the behaviour of the marketed surplus in terms of the relevant price and income variables and compare their estimates with the figure of marketed surplus of cereals implied in the year-end projections of the Fourth Plan.

Regional Patterns of Education-Rimland and Heartland in Indian Education

Susanne Hoeber Rudolph Responsibility for education lies primarily on the States. Since the States differ significantly with respect to language, history, economic levels and social structure, their differences get translated into the quite distinct patterns of education to be found among the States.

Reply

Review of Agriculture June 1969 Reply C H Hanumantha Rao THE extension of my welfare analysis by T N Srinivasan and P K Bardhan is useful as it provides a method for identifying empirically the income groups in rural (urban) areas who may be better or worse off than their urban (rural) counterparts, given the assumption of identical preferences. One of the main points of my welfare analysis was that the large expenditure groups may not experience a real income advantage in rural areas as compared to their urban counterparts. The estimates of Srinivasan and Bardhan confirm this proposition as they conclude that "for a given price difference the higher expenditure groups spending a larger proportion on more expensive urban goods are worse off relative to their urban counterparts''. It is important to note this because many of the prevailing studies on tax burden assume that real incomes of the rural rich are higher than those of their urban counterparts.

Resource Prospects from the Rural Sector-A Comment

P K Bardhan Hanumantha Rao ("Resource Prospects from the Rural Sector : The Case of Indirect Taxes", March 29, 1969, pp A-53 to A-58) could have gone further than he did in his welfare analysis of the differential indirect tax burden on rural and urban consumers of similar money income groups.

The Green Revolution in Punjab-A Field Trip

This paper presents the findings of two brief trips earlier this year through two of the principal districts of Punjab. The "Green Revolution" is very much in evidence in Punjab

A Strategy for Ayacut Development under Major Irrigation Projects

Perhaps in no other agricultural or industrial programme is the gestation lag so long as it is in major irrigation projects. The long gap between the creation and utilisation of irrigation facilities depresses returns on investment in these projects and prevents full exploitation of the additional agricultural production potential. Not only that, the reservoirs get silted as a result of non-utilisation of their waters and their life is permanently reduced.

Farm Size, Productivity and Returns to Scale

It is suggested in this paper that Indian agriculture is characterised by constant returns to scale. With returns to scale constant, the explanation for variations in productivity per acre as farm size changes lies in the level of various inputs associated with farm size. The higher output per acre in smaller farms is really a function of the higher input of labour.

Foodgrains Self-sufficiency in Fourth Plan

Foodgrains output is a crucial factor for achieving the Fourth Plan objective of growth with stability. Demand for foodgrains at the end of the Plan, the author estimates, will be 126 million tonnes. To meet it. production will have to grow at the rate of 5.8 per cent per annum compound.

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