ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Effectiveness and Efficiency in Public Administration-A Theoretical Framework

Administration A Theoretical Framework Satya Deva Western theorising about effectiveness and efficiency has reached an impasse; also, it is hardly relevant to underdeveloped countries.

Evaluating the Evaluators-Performance of Bureau of Public Enterprises

Performance of Bureau of Public Enterprises Prajapati Trivedi This paper analyses the performance of the Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE). It argues that the source of the ineffectiveness of BPE lies in its inability to measure the performance of public enterprises in a way that is both fair to the managers and to the nation. The institutional set up of BPE too significantly contributes to its ineffectiveness. Finding the present system of performance evaluation used by BPE severely lacking, the paper suggests three axioms of public enterprise performance evaluation against which all future efforts of BPE should be judged.

Cost of Technology Imports-The Indian Experience

The Indian Experience Nagesh Kumar Though acquisition of technology from abroad may at times prove to be an expeditious way of getting the requisite technology, it has inevitable short and long run implications for the economic and technological development of the borrowing country A significant amount of literature has directed itself to assessing the impact of 'technology imports by India. Most of the studies in this category are, however, partial in their scope in that they have studied the impact in specific cases or on some specific parameters. This paper summarises the current state of knowledge on this aspect.

Financing of Working Capital in Indian Industry

V S Kaveri This review of working capital finance, based on the Reserve Bank of India's studies on Finances of Large Public Limited Companies, concludes that Indian industry has by and large failed to change its pattern of working capital financing in keeping with the norm suggested by the Chore Committee. While the position of working capital management showed some improvement between 1975-79 and 1979-83, industries have not succeeded in widening the base of long-term funds to the desired extent.

Prospects for Self-Reliance and Indigenisation in Automobile Industry-Case of Maruti-Suzuki Project

in Automobile Industry Case of Maruti-Suzuki Project T Hamaguchi This study of the prospects for self-reliance and indigenisation in the automobile industry concludes that the liberalisation policy in respect of the automobile sector should be oriented more towards the development of the automobile ancillary industry in the long-run. Care should be taken to ensure that the concessional import tariffs with respect to automobile ancillary items and spares do not pose a threat to the domestic automobile ancillary industries.

Food Consumption and Size of People-Some Indian Evidence

food intake of a population as indices of its health and well-being has been the subject of a lively debate in recent years. One major focus of the discussion is the question raised by Sukhatme (1978, 1981, 1982) about the possibility of defining objectively the quantum of calories, protein and other nutrients necessary for people of specified age, sex and activity levels to maintain normal health. He argued that apart from the variation in food requirement between individuals falling within the same age-sex activity category (which has been well recognised), there are self-regulatory mechanisms for adjusting energy expenditure to intake which enable a given individual to maintain a normal level of activity without any significant change in body weight or loss of health despite day- to-day and week-to-week variation in the level of food intake or, to be more precise, calorie intake. Sukhatme has also cited some evidence to show that intra-individual differences are much more important than inter- individual variations. On this basis he questioned the use of average nutritional norms as the basis for judging the incidence of poverty and under-nourishment, and for deciding the policy intervention appropriate to alleviating these conditions. While the existence of intra-individual variation is now generally accepted, the factors responsible for them and, even more so, their implication for the use of average nutritional norms for measuring poverty and under-nourishment continue to be matters of controversy. (See, for example, Dandekar, 1981; Krishnaji, 1981; Srinivasan 1977; and Gopalan, 1983.) Specifically, there is some question whether the claim about intra-individual variation being more important than variations between individuals is valid for a group which does not normally get enough to eat. Mechanisms by which individuals can maintain weight, health and normal activity in the face of day-to-day variations cannot be independent of the long term mean level of intake. In any case, as Sukhatme himself recognises, the importance of intra- individual variations fails as the period over which intake observations are taken increases till eventually we are left only with variations between individuals. It has of course been suggested that biological adaptation arising from inter-actions between genetic and environmental factors can take place even over the long-run, i e, in the face of changes in the sustained level of food intake by individuals. "If nutrient constraints are encountered at a given rate of growth, the rate is slowed down to bring the nutrient demand into equilibrium with nutrient supply. By thus regulating the speed of the internal physiological 'clock' short-run equilibrium is established and the ultimate size and shape of the adult may be moulded to its environment" (Seckler 1979:5). Low levels of sustained intake may on this reasoning result in a population of smaller physical stature which may nevertheless show no greater signs of ill health or clinical malnutrition than a better fed population. But clearly this is a long term process and one which has definite limits. Whether indeed sustained low levels of intake or significant reductions in the sustained level of intake leads to mere adaptation in size without impairing health or activity is an important question of fact but one which has not been adequately explored and certainly not conclusively.1 This paper examines, on the basis of some Indian survey data, the relation between sustained mean food intake of population in different regions and their mean size and health status. We recognise that these relations are inherently complex and the relevant information of the requisite quality necessary to unravel them empirically is also difficult to get. Nevertheless some information is available, and the question of how sustained low intakes and significant reduction in mean intakes affects people is particularly important in our context because a very high proportion of the population live close to the margin of subsistence and the per capita food grain production (the major component of food) has shown a declining trend in as many as eight major states during the last two decades.2 THE AVAILABLE DATA The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) has conducted several detailed field surveys of food intake, nutritional status and anthropometric measurements in different parts of India over the last 2-3 decades. Some of these enquiries are of limited scope being confined to particular towns/villages or sections of the population. But the Institute has also carried out two large-scale sample surveys which give anthropometric data for a number of states at two points of time. This body of data provides a basis for studying the size-intake relation and, with heavy qualification, changes in size over time.

The Kaniatchi Form of Labour

Mihir Shah Marxist writing on Indian agriculture has, in recent years, tended to concentrate on the question of the mode of production. The development of capitalism in agriculture has been the major focus of the discussion. This emphasis is quite understandable since for over the last two centuries, capitalist forces have had an unprecedented profoundly transformative impact on the indigenous cultures of millions of people, not only in India but throughout the continents of Latin America, Africa and Asia, lb arrive at a conception of the nature of present-day agrarian relations in these areas, therefore, it becomes vital to study the process of this transformation.

Classical and Contemporary Approaches to Agrarian Capitalism

to Agrarian Capitalism Shapan Adnan The classical sources on the 'agrarian question' were concerned with developing general theoretical principles as well as applying them to particular social and historical contexts. The recent discussion on the mode of production in Indian agriculture drew upon the theoretical categories and arguments developed in these earlier texts, in particular the paradigm of capitalist development.

Peasants, Workers and Freedom Struggle-Jalpaiguri, 1945-47

Peasants, Workers and Freedom Struggle Jalpaiguri, 1945-47 Ranajit Das Gupta This essay makes a preliminary attempt to deal primarily with the stream of popular movements, particularly peasant and worker movements, in Jalpaiguri, a district in North Bengal that had a significant role during the climactic years of 1945-47 in India's struggle for freedom. It discusses popular participation and analyses the nature and significance of such participation in the national movement It also touches on the links and interactions between different streams of the national movement, different approaches to freedom struggle and, further, the interventions made by the major anti-imperialist political forces.

Crop Insurance in India-A Review, 1976-77 to 1984-85

 V M Dandekar In 1979-80 the General Insurance Corporation, in collaboration with the state governments, introduced a crop insurance scheme in 26 areas of Gujarat, 23 areas of West Bengal, and 17 areas of Tamil Nadu. Since then, the scheme has been extended to more areas of more states. The purpose of this paper is to trace the methodological modifications made from time to time in the original scheme, to identify certain outstanding problems and to suggest provisional solutions.

White Revolution in India Facts and Issues

K N Nair This paper highlights the trend and sources of growth of milk production in recent years and analyses the under- lying factors. It discusses the changes in the quantum and quality of feed supply, and the conversion efficiency of milch animal herd due to variations in species and breed composition and the role of Operation Flood Such an exercise, it is hoped, will provide some insights into some of the major constraints on increasing milk production in India against the background of the much debated Operation Flood strategy.

FROM THE CHAIR- Administered Interest Rates in India

L M Bhole The rate of interest is an important price in any economy. If it is determined mainly by the market forces, it may help in taking appropriate decisions about saving, investment, allocation of resources, financial and monetary policy, etc However, the level and structure of interest rates in India have remained very closely regulated by the authorities. The present study examines the working of this administered system of interest rates, and discusses the issues and considerations which need to form the basis of future interest rate and monetary policies for the Indian economy THE plan of the study is as follows: In Section I, after stating the background and the content of the present system, we briefly refer to the nature, criteria' and feasibility of an alternative system of interest rates which, according to us, would be appropriate for India. Section II discusses the features and rationale of the present system by reconstructing its scope, techniques, authority, timing, and its effects on interest rates and credit control mechanism. The reasoning and empirical evidence in support of the case for an alternative system are presented in Section III. The lessons from experiences of some countries in operating the similar systems of controlled interest rates are mentioned in Section IV. Summary and conclusions are presented in Section V.

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