ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Arya Samaj and Women s Education-Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Jalandhar

Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Jalandhar Madhu Kishwar The Kanya Mahavidyalaya in Jalandhar was set up in the 1890s in response to the need to impart to women a special kind of education which would enable them to adapt themselves to the new demands made by the educated men of the family without losing their cultural moorings. It was one of the most successful experiments of its kind as well as the most daring and radical in its innovativeness. Its founder, Lala Devaraj an Arya Samajist and his supporters most of whom were women, faced criticism and attack from conservative opinion both inside and outside the Samaj. The battles they fought and the way the internal contradictions in the Arya Samaj theory and practice were resolved are significant because they are typical of the legacy inherited by women's education today from its nineteenth century beginnings.

Kadambini and the Bhadralok-Early Debates over Women s Education in Bengal

Early Debates over Women's Education in Bengal Malavika Karlekar Debates over women's education in Bengal in the 1860s were broadly divided along the following lines: radical Brahmos felt that there was no justification for instituting a separate curriculum for girls or limiting the level to which girls should be educated; mainstream Brahmos and the more enlightened sections of the Hindus advocated a limited education for girls which would serve the major purpose of making women intelligent companions for the emergent bhadralok and better mothers for the next generation. The education of women, it was argued, involved a very different set of values from the rationale, for instance, behind agitating for home rule and, later, legislative representation. If women were excessively liberated there was no guarantee that they would either accept the moral straitjacket imposed on them or the sexual double standards allowed for men. These subconscious insecurities took a hysterical form occasionally as in the response to the educational and later professional successes of Kadambini, the first Indian woman doctor.

Economies of Scale or Advantages of Class-Some Results from a South Indian Farm Economy Study

Some Results from a South Indian Farm Economy Study Venkatesh B Athreya Gustav Boklin Goran Djurfeldt Staffan Lindberg The controversy over farm size and productivity' which began more than two decades ago is continuing unabated. It has important implications for the debate on agricultural development. The following case study of agricultural production in Tiruchi district, Tamil Nadu, is intended in part as a contribution to this discussion.

Mobility and Inequality in Indian Agriculture

P N Junankar This paper attempts to study changes in income and wealth distribution in Indian agriculture, using Farm Manage- ment Studies data for the Ferozepur district of Punjab. The proposed method of analysis allows the author to test whether inequality is increasing or decreasing on average or whether it is changing due to mobility in the sample. Also tested are the commonly made assumption of 'time homogeneity,' i e transition probabilities remain constant over time, and whether an individual farm that does well in one period does even better in the next period.

Social Conditioning of Technology Use-A Study of Irrigation and Production in Punjab, 1965-1970

A Study of Irrigation and Production in Punjab, 1965-1970 Jasveen Jairath To investigate and assess the role that irrigation technologies play in influencing yields in different regions, it is necessary to identify the conditions which facilitate or constrain the adoption and effective utilisation of irrigation. This paper seeks to explain the differences in responses to public and private sources of irrigation as observed in different areas of Pubjab, differing in sources of irrigation as observed in different areas of Punjab, differing in sources of irrigation. The author finds that it is mainly and basically the differences in the pattern of land distribution that explain the differential impact of irrigation on production.

Social Profile of Agricultural Entrepreneurs-Economic Behaviour and Life-Style of Middle-Large Farmers in Central Gujarat

Economic Behaviour and Life-Style of Middle-Large Farmers in Central Gujarat Mario Rutten Based on field-work in the Charotar tract of Kheda district in central Gujarat, this paper analyses some qualitative aspects of the economic behaviour and life-style of the class of middle-large farmers. After reviewing the economic progress of the Charotar area from the second half of the last century and the upward socio-economic mobility of the class of middle-large farmers, the present mode of farming, organisation of labour, pattern of investment and lifestyle of the farming households are described. It is argued that besides the features usually associated with a capitalist mode of agricultural production

Groundnut Economy of Gujarat

Shrikant Modak This paper examines the working of the groundnut economy of Gujarat and the role being played by various agents in its development Production of and trade in groundnut are discussed in the first two sections of the paper, white the third section deals with the industrial processing of groundnut The fourth and final section analyses the role that has so far been played by merchant capital in the development of the groundnut economy of Gujarat and the role that the co-operative sector may play in its future development THE oilseed sector is an important sector of our national economy. Among the major oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut is perhaps the most important of the lot. It occupies 46 per cent of the total area under oilseed crops and has a share of over 60 per cent in the country's oilseed output. There are five major groundnut producing states in the country and among these Gujarat is the largest producer. Gujarat's share in the national oilseed production is 35 per cent and it exercises a considerable influence on the national oilseed scene.

Development of Senior Administrators

A P Saxena Efforts for development of senior administrators have been either inadequate or ad hoc, lacking appreciation of key concerns including issues of need, objectives and content. In the meantime, the number of senior administrators in most developing countries needing intervention inputs for development has been steadily increasing with the growth in the pace of planned economic development.

Liberalisation of Automobile Industry Policy and Demand for Commercial Vehicles

and Demand for Commercial Vehicles Rajaram Dasgupta This paper attempts to estimate demand for different categories of commercial vehicles upto the end of this decade. The author contends that the official demand forecasts are exaggerated because the assumptions about growth of traffic on which they are based are unrealistic. In the light of his demand projection, the author argues that the current policies of licensing a number of new units is likely to result in underutilisation of capacity and consequent loss of economies of scale. A preferable policy would be to increase capacity in the existing units would achieve greater efficiency and introduce some competition in the industry.

Personnel Policies in Regional Rural Banks

Anil K Khandelwal The Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were conceived as low-cost institutions to provide credit to small and marginal farmers and other down-trodden sections in the rural areas. Within a short span of a decade, the RRBs have carved out a niche for themselves among rural financing agencies. For the RRBs to achieve the tasks set for them will require highly motivated personnel and a climate which is conducive to development. However, issues of personnel policies for the RRBs have on the whole received scant attention. This neglect can prove costly in the long run. This paper is an attempt to put focus on this complex area and is divided into two sections: section I focuses on the problem areas in personnel management in RRBs and section II puts forward some suggestions for improvement of their personnel policies.

Compensating Government Employees for Price Increase-Basis, Trends and Forecasts

Compensating Government Employees for Price Increase Basis, Trends and Forecasts Poonam Gupta Sanjeev Gupta Does the existing policy of dearness allowance (DA) payments compensate government employees for price increase without introducing distortions in the pay structure? Also, by how much wilt the liability of the govern- ment increase by the turn of the century if present trends in DA payments are maintained? In this paper, the recommendations made by various pay commissions and other bodies on DA since its inception are summarised to bring out the underlying rationale. This is followed by a discussion of the present trends in DA payments. Subsequently, forecast of such payments by the Union government as well as different state governments upto the year 2000 are made. Conclusions are drawn in the last section.

Learning by Doing-Technology Transfer to an Indian Manufacturing Firm

Technology Transfer to an Indian Manufacturing Firm Shekhar Chaudhuri Tushar K Moulik This paper presents an in-depth case study of technology transfer to an Indian manufacturing firm in the tractor industry and highlights the complexities arising as a result of the interaction of a number of factors both external to the firm as well as internal to it.

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