ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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An Integrated View of Entrepreneurship

Dwijendra Tripathi The terms 'entrepreneur' and 'entrepreneurship' have generated considerable debate in recent years. However, there is considerable conceptual confusion about these terms which helps neither entrepreneurial research nor the programmes for entrepreneurial development. The paper seeks to clarify this confusion of concepts by examining the historical evolution of the term and the changes in its conceptual meaning. Based on this analysis the author presents a schema for understanding the process of entrepreneurship. The author concludes that although entrepreneurship must remain confined to the economic sphere it cannot be comprehended without reference to factors other than the economic alone.

Role of Indian Worker in Early Phase of Industrialisation-A Critique of Established View, with Special Reference to Tata Iron and Steel Co, 1910-30

of Industrialisation A Critique of Established View, with Special Reference to Tata Iron and Steel Co, 1910-30 Satyabrata Datta Accounts of the Indian worker in the early phase of the country's industrialisation proceed on the assumption of the low level of his technical skill and industrial efficiency. Now, the question of skill/lack of skill or efficiency/ inefficiency of Indian labour involves both theoretical and empirical considerations. None of the accounts of the early Indian industrial worker, however, bases its arguments on a clear theoretical position. At the same time, a critical enquiry into the TISCO workers' performance calls into question also the empirical validity of this view of Indian labour This paper is in two parts. In the first part, attempts are made to problematise certain theoretical issues. Apart from showing the theoretical inadequacies of the established view of Indian labour, the author focuses on the discussion around the theme of skill/efficiency. In the second part of the paper, the empirical fallacies in the established view of the Indian worker are taken up. The author discusses how in this view illiteracy and the alleged low level of skill of the Indian worker are seen as interdependent. Also taken up for consideration are the ideological motivations that shaped the established view of labour as well as the question of the comparative efficiency of Indian and Western labour.

Freedom Denied-Indian Women and Indentureship in Trinidad and Tobago, 1845-1917

One of the long-held myths about Indian women immigrants in Trinidad and Tobago is that they migrated with their families under the power, authority and control of their male relatives and were docile and tractable. These views ignore the historical documentation on the 'Indian Women Problem' which confronted the colonial office as far back as 1845 when Indian indentureship to Trinidad began. Contemporary research in women's history has revealed that a large proportion of Indian women did make a conscious decision to seek a new life elsewhere. They came as workers and not as dependents. However, the planters saw women as 'unproductive' labour and policies facilitated their exploitation as cheap labour In addition the hierarchical social structure of the Brahminic- Sanskritic tradition brought about a conflation of interests between migrant Indian men and the colonial capital. Indian women in the colonies did not easily or willingly submit to these designs.

City and Countryside in Colonial Tanganyika

The colonial solution in Tanganyika attempted to stabilise the working class and restrict African settlement in town solely to permanently employed workers and the middle classes: In order to successfully carry this out, the African extended family system was attacked, and the nuclear family was encouraged. The secondary economy was heavily taxed, regulated, and wherever possible, undermined. 'Staff associations' or 'workers councils9 were promoted among workers to counter the labour movement. Women became central actors and targets in the struggle to impose the colonial solution.

Positivism and Nationalism-Womanhood and Crisis in Nationalist Fiction-Bankimchandra s Anandmath

Of all the models of social regeneration that arrived from the West in the second half of the nineteenth century, Comte's Positivism appealed most to the Janus-tike intelligentsia of Bengal. It enabled them to look back on the order of the Golden Age of Hindus and at the same time look forward to the progress generated by British rule. Bankimchandra's later novels such as "Anandmath", far from dismissing the modernising influence of Positivism, in fact, represents a crisis in his nationalist consciousness. These novels create a parable of the nationalist confrontation and womanhood becomes the emblem of both the threatened and ravaged order as well as of the resistance to such ravages. Comte's glorification of woman undergoes a sea-change and Bankim's neo- positivist heroine of Anandmath is a fighter to the last who refuses to go back to the 'enclosed space' of domesticity.

Sarojini Naidu Romanticism and Resistance

Born in Hyderabad, India in 1879 Sarojini Naidu received a British education. Her poems pick up the diction of the English decadents, transposing the images into India. The pained passive women in her poetry stand however in radical contrast to Naidu's own life: she was a close friend of Gandhi's and active in the National movement, suffering imprisonment numerous times. In 1925 she was elected the first Indian women president of the National Congress. How can the cleft between her poetry and her politics be explained? What does it reveal about the complex procedures of Naidu's own evolving feminism as it struggled with colonialism?

Ideologies on Women in Nineteenth Century Britain, 1850s-70s

Thinkers in Victorian England addressed themselves to the myriad and complex queries which the on-going women's movement of today poses for Marxists and non-Marxists alike, concerning the place of women, family and home, This paper is confined to the period 1850s70s which saw the publication of major ideological statements concerning women by Mill, Darwin and Ruskin which together helped to identify the parameters of the conflict of ideologies in this period, parameters which are counterpointed by the socialist thinking on the woman question which had emerged earlier. The ideological positions of Mill, Darwin and Ruskin did not arise in a vacuum; they were embattled positions taken in the wake of social changes brought on by industrial capitalism and the emergence of a women's movement. The author deals with this process in the first part of the paper and in the second with the ideologies, both feminist and anti-feminist, and their absorption within the movement.

Gender and Imperialism in British India

The British used the particular form which gender divisions took in India as a vehicle for proving their liberality, as a demonstration of their superiority, and as a legitimation of their rule. They signally failed to understand the particular form of male supremacy in their own culture, or to analyse how they treated and reinforced aspects of male oppression within Indian culture, seeing no parallels between the different cultural forms of male dominance in the two countries.

Withdrawal of Fertiliser Subsidies-An Economic Appraisal

An Economic Appraisal Jaime Quizon This paper considers the economic costs and returns of alternative uses of public funds expended on subsiding the consumption of fertilisers in India.

Irrigation Impact on Farm Economy

B D Dhawan The main conclusion, emerging from a limited probe into the sample field data of four states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh is that the on-farm benefits from a unit of irrigated area need not rise with the size of a farm holding. Small farmers can gain, acre for acre, as much benefits from irrigation as do large farmers. This is borne out by survey data pertaining to Punjab and Tamil Nadu states.

Interaction between Trading Capital and Productive Capital in Agriculture under Uncertainty

Review of Agriculture, September 28, 1985 Interaction between Trading Capital and Productive Capital in Agriculture under Uncertainty Ajit K Chaudhury Kalyan K Sanyal The authors have recently developed a theoretical framework to analyse the interaction between productive and sterile activities in an underdeveloped, dualistic agrarian economy (EPW, Review of Political Economy, August 1984). In particular, they discussed the case where the sterile activity grows at the cost of the productive activity The discussion, however, was based on a deterministic model where the uncertainty associated with the prices of agricultural commodities was assumed away This paper tries to examine how the results obtained earlier are affected when uncertainty is explicitly introduced into the model.

Some Dynamic Aspects of Rural Poverty in India

Irma Adelman K Subbarao Prem Vashishtha Studies on income distribution have tended to be point observations and throw little light on longer-term movements in relative inequality. Analysis of movement in poverty ratios on the basis of data on rural households collected by the NCAER for three years between 1968 and 1971, using probability models, have led the authors of the paper to conclude that long-term trends are divergent for different states. For seven states


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