ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Positivism and Nationalism-Womanhood and Crisis in Nationalist Fiction-Bankimchandra s Anandmath

Of all the models of social regeneration that arrived from the West in the second half of the nineteenth century, Comte's Positivism appealed most to the Janus-tike intelligentsia of Bengal. It enabled them to look back on the order of the Golden Age of Hindus and at the same time look forward to the progress generated by British rule. Bankimchandra's later novels such as "Anandmath", far from dismissing the modernising influence of Positivism, in fact, represents a crisis in his nationalist consciousness. These novels create a parable of the nationalist confrontation and womanhood becomes the emblem of both the threatened and ravaged order as well as of the resistance to such ravages. Comte's glorification of woman undergoes a sea-change and Bankim's neo- positivist heroine of Anandmath is a fighter to the last who refuses to go back to the 'enclosed space' of domesticity.

Sarojini Naidu Romanticism and Resistance

Born in Hyderabad, India in 1879 Sarojini Naidu received a British education. Her poems pick up the diction of the English decadents, transposing the images into India. The pained passive women in her poetry stand however in radical contrast to Naidu's own life: she was a close friend of Gandhi's and active in the National movement, suffering imprisonment numerous times. In 1925 she was elected the first Indian women president of the National Congress. How can the cleft between her poetry and her politics be explained? What does it reveal about the complex procedures of Naidu's own evolving feminism as it struggled with colonialism?

Ideologies on Women in Nineteenth Century Britain, 1850s-70s

Thinkers in Victorian England addressed themselves to the myriad and complex queries which the on-going women's movement of today poses for Marxists and non-Marxists alike, concerning the place of women, family and home, This paper is confined to the period 1850s70s which saw the publication of major ideological statements concerning women by Mill, Darwin and Ruskin which together helped to identify the parameters of the conflict of ideologies in this period, parameters which are counterpointed by the socialist thinking on the woman question which had emerged earlier. The ideological positions of Mill, Darwin and Ruskin did not arise in a vacuum; they were embattled positions taken in the wake of social changes brought on by industrial capitalism and the emergence of a women's movement. The author deals with this process in the first part of the paper and in the second with the ideologies, both feminist and anti-feminist, and their absorption within the movement.

Gender and Imperialism in British India

The British used the particular form which gender divisions took in India as a vehicle for proving their liberality, as a demonstration of their superiority, and as a legitimation of their rule. They signally failed to understand the particular form of male supremacy in their own culture, or to analyse how they treated and reinforced aspects of male oppression within Indian culture, seeing no parallels between the different cultural forms of male dominance in the two countries.

Some Dynamic Aspects of Rural Poverty in India

Irma Adelman K Subbarao Prem Vashishtha Studies on income distribution have tended to be point observations and throw little light on longer-term movements in relative inequality. Analysis of movement in poverty ratios on the basis of data on rural households collected by the NCAER for three years between 1968 and 1971, using probability models, have led the authors of the paper to conclude that long-term trends are divergent for different states. For seven states

Withdrawal of Fertiliser Subsidies-An Economic Appraisal

An Economic Appraisal Jaime Quizon This paper considers the economic costs and returns of alternative uses of public funds expended on subsiding the consumption of fertilisers in India.

Irrigation Impact on Farm Economy

B D Dhawan The main conclusion, emerging from a limited probe into the sample field data of four states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh is that the on-farm benefits from a unit of irrigated area need not rise with the size of a farm holding. Small farmers can gain, acre for acre, as much benefits from irrigation as do large farmers. This is borne out by survey data pertaining to Punjab and Tamil Nadu states.

Interaction between Trading Capital and Productive Capital in Agriculture under Uncertainty

Review of Agriculture, September 28, 1985 Interaction between Trading Capital and Productive Capital in Agriculture under Uncertainty Ajit K Chaudhury Kalyan K Sanyal The authors have recently developed a theoretical framework to analyse the interaction between productive and sterile activities in an underdeveloped, dualistic agrarian economy (EPW, Review of Political Economy, August 1984). In particular, they discussed the case where the sterile activity grows at the cost of the productive activity The discussion, however, was based on a deterministic model where the uncertainty associated with the prices of agricultural commodities was assumed away This paper tries to examine how the results obtained earlier are affected when uncertainty is explicitly introduced into the model.

Effectiveness and Efficiency in Public Administration-A Theoretical Framework

Administration A Theoretical Framework Satya Deva Western theorising about effectiveness and efficiency has reached an impasse; also, it is hardly relevant to underdeveloped countries.

Evaluating the Evaluators-Performance of Bureau of Public Enterprises

Performance of Bureau of Public Enterprises Prajapati Trivedi This paper analyses the performance of the Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE). It argues that the source of the ineffectiveness of BPE lies in its inability to measure the performance of public enterprises in a way that is both fair to the managers and to the nation. The institutional set up of BPE too significantly contributes to its ineffectiveness. Finding the present system of performance evaluation used by BPE severely lacking, the paper suggests three axioms of public enterprise performance evaluation against which all future efforts of BPE should be judged.

Cost of Technology Imports-The Indian Experience

The Indian Experience Nagesh Kumar Though acquisition of technology from abroad may at times prove to be an expeditious way of getting the requisite technology, it has inevitable short and long run implications for the economic and technological development of the borrowing country A significant amount of literature has directed itself to assessing the impact of 'technology imports by India. Most of the studies in this category are, however, partial in their scope in that they have studied the impact in specific cases or on some specific parameters. This paper summarises the current state of knowledge on this aspect.

Financing of Working Capital in Indian Industry

V S Kaveri This review of working capital finance, based on the Reserve Bank of India's studies on Finances of Large Public Limited Companies, concludes that Indian industry has by and large failed to change its pattern of working capital financing in keeping with the norm suggested by the Chore Committee. While the position of working capital management showed some improvement between 1975-79 and 1979-83, industries have not succeeded in widening the base of long-term funds to the desired extent.

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