ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Tribal Women in the Warli Revolt 1945-47-Class and Gender in the Left Perspective

'Class' and 'Gender' in the Left Perspective Indra Munshi Saldanha The historiography of popular struggles has subsumed women under the category of 'man' thereby ensuring their invisibility even while creating the myth of women's passivity This has given rise to the belief (hat men alone were capable of militant action, of leadership, of changing the course of events and, in short, of making history. Women, when mentioned at all, have been portrayed as followers or supporters in these struggles.

ANDHRA PRADESH-Charity Begins in the House

rich peasants in Pravaranagar area that there should be a well-defined public policy on the sharing of waters amongst sugarcane cultivators situated upstream and down-stream of a canal irrigation system. This is indeed a comic and curious situation since the demand for equitable sharing of water has precisely come from a lobby of rich peasants who are threatened for the first time in the last 35 years. This demand is symptomatic of the larger conflict on equity that will inevitably shape the politics of Maharashtra. Hence we have considered that the question of equitable sharing of gains of irrigation is not exactly a hypothetical one that can be put off to a more convenient future time, (iii) The next logical option is to equalise the rates of lift and flow irrigation. Once we accept the idea that the irrigation water should be shared over a large area and amongst a greater number of cultivators then this equalisation of costs becomes self- evident. It should be comparable to freight equalisation of steel over the entire country once steel is considered as a basic input of the industrialisation strategy. With this equalisation, the farmers who are situated beyond the command of flow irrigation canal system would have access to seasonal irrigation by way of lifting the water from the canal. This cost of lifting should be subsidised as a matter of public policy on equity.

Arya Samaj and Women s Education-Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Jalandhar

Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Jalandhar Madhu Kishwar The Kanya Mahavidyalaya in Jalandhar was set up in the 1890s in response to the need to impart to women a special kind of education which would enable them to adapt themselves to the new demands made by the educated men of the family without losing their cultural moorings. It was one of the most successful experiments of its kind as well as the most daring and radical in its innovativeness. Its founder, Lala Devaraj an Arya Samajist and his supporters most of whom were women, faced criticism and attack from conservative opinion both inside and outside the Samaj. The battles they fought and the way the internal contradictions in the Arya Samaj theory and practice were resolved are significant because they are typical of the legacy inherited by women's education today from its nineteenth century beginnings.

Kadambini and the Bhadralok-Early Debates over Women s Education in Bengal

Early Debates over Women's Education in Bengal Malavika Karlekar Debates over women's education in Bengal in the 1860s were broadly divided along the following lines: radical Brahmos felt that there was no justification for instituting a separate curriculum for girls or limiting the level to which girls should be educated; mainstream Brahmos and the more enlightened sections of the Hindus advocated a limited education for girls which would serve the major purpose of making women intelligent companions for the emergent bhadralok and better mothers for the next generation. The education of women, it was argued, involved a very different set of values from the rationale, for instance, behind agitating for home rule and, later, legislative representation. If women were excessively liberated there was no guarantee that they would either accept the moral straitjacket imposed on them or the sexual double standards allowed for men. These subconscious insecurities took a hysterical form occasionally as in the response to the educational and later professional successes of Kadambini, the first Indian woman doctor.

In Search of the Pure Heathen-Missionary Women in Nineteenth Century India

Missionary Women in Nineteenth Century India Geraldine H Forbes In the latter half of the nineteenth century British missionary women appointed by Ladies' Missionary Societies began to arrive in India with the expressed purpose of converting 'pure heathens,' i e, Indian women confined in the zenanas. In the zenanas they hoped to educate as well as to convert. The effort to convert was usually abandoned under the strict supervision of the male guardians of their Indian students. Even the real mission, to impart training, was hardly successful. The greatest impact of this plan was on the women missionaries themselves who, drawn from the 'surplus' of genteel single women in England, would otherwise have been competing for the few available positions of governesses. Significantly, women missionaries of the period were not only the helpmates of the imperialists but were themselves imperialists reenacting the drama of the coloniser and the colonised within the confines of the zenana.

Doordarshan s Neurosis

 Doordarshan's Neurosis Hiren Gohain EVERY educated Indian is now aware what a powerful and important medium the TY has become. He is equally apprehensive that this medium has fallen a prey to a series of serious maladies. Hence, when I received an invitation to attend the NAMEDIA seminar on 'Indian Television Today and Tomorrow', I accepted it with some alacrity. But on that fateful day when I joined the crowds at the appointed place and time in Guwahati, I felt acutely uncomfortable in the company of all the pillars of the establishment and could not help sneaking away with a sinking heart What I had intended to say on this occasion would have caused only blank incomprehension and anger among the assembled company.

Production of an Official Discourse on Sati in Early Nineteenth Century Bengal

in Early Nineteenth Century Bengal Lata Mani Several debates arose in the nineteenth century on the status of women in India in the context of determining, an appropriate colonial policy on such matters as sati which were seen to mark the depressed position of women in society. The reform of these practices was held to be part of the regenerating mission of colonisation. The most sensational and the first of these debates concerned the outlawing of sati.

WEST GERMANY-Offensive on Afghanistan

 bills have been further liberalised. Now ministers, the speaker and members of their families need not furnish the prescribed certificate in respect of the claims. These rules are in line with the IAS (Medical Attendance) Rules, 1954, But the legislators, the deputy speaker and the chief whip do not have this privilege. Their claims have to be certified by a government doctor not below the rank of a Civil Assistant Surgeon. (Earlier a Civil Surgeon had to certify the bill.) About the expenditure for treatment abroad, the Act states that "it is not possible to assess the exact expenditure in this behalf, as it connot be anticipated as to how many will avail of this concession...". In- cidentally, two ministers, Mahipal Reddy and R Rajagopal Reddy, have already availed of this concession recently besides, of course, the Chief Minister himself.

Mobility and Inequality in Indian Agriculture

P N Junankar This paper attempts to study changes in income and wealth distribution in Indian agriculture, using Farm Manage- ment Studies data for the Ferozepur district of Punjab. The proposed method of analysis allows the author to test whether inequality is increasing or decreasing on average or whether it is changing due to mobility in the sample. Also tested are the commonly made assumption of 'time homogeneity,' i e transition probabilities remain constant over time, and whether an individual farm that does well in one period does even better in the next period.

Social Conditioning of Technology Use-A Study of Irrigation and Production in Punjab, 1965-1970

A Study of Irrigation and Production in Punjab, 1965-1970 Jasveen Jairath To investigate and assess the role that irrigation technologies play in influencing yields in different regions, it is necessary to identify the conditions which facilitate or constrain the adoption and effective utilisation of irrigation. This paper seeks to explain the differences in responses to public and private sources of irrigation as observed in different areas of Pubjab, differing in sources of irrigation as observed in different areas of Punjab, differing in sources of irrigation. The author finds that it is mainly and basically the differences in the pattern of land distribution that explain the differential impact of irrigation on production.

Social Profile of Agricultural Entrepreneurs-Economic Behaviour and Life-Style of Middle-Large Farmers in Central Gujarat

Economic Behaviour and Life-Style of Middle-Large Farmers in Central Gujarat Mario Rutten Based on field-work in the Charotar tract of Kheda district in central Gujarat, this paper analyses some qualitative aspects of the economic behaviour and life-style of the class of middle-large farmers. After reviewing the economic progress of the Charotar area from the second half of the last century and the upward socio-economic mobility of the class of middle-large farmers, the present mode of farming, organisation of labour, pattern of investment and lifestyle of the farming households are described. It is argued that besides the features usually associated with a capitalist mode of agricultural production

Groundnut Economy of Gujarat

Shrikant Modak This paper examines the working of the groundnut economy of Gujarat and the role being played by various agents in its development Production of and trade in groundnut are discussed in the first two sections of the paper, white the third section deals with the industrial processing of groundnut The fourth and final section analyses the role that has so far been played by merchant capital in the development of the groundnut economy of Gujarat and the role that the co-operative sector may play in its future development THE oilseed sector is an important sector of our national economy. Among the major oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut is perhaps the most important of the lot. It occupies 46 per cent of the total area under oilseed crops and has a share of over 60 per cent in the country's oilseed output. There are five major groundnut producing states in the country and among these Gujarat is the largest producer. Gujarat's share in the national oilseed production is 35 per cent and it exercises a considerable influence on the national oilseed scene.

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