ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Labour Use in Rural India-A Study of Spatial and Temporal Variations

A Study of Spatial and Temporal Variations A Vaidyanathan This paper examines inter-state and inter-district variations in total labour input into agriculture per unit of area and the reasons for these variations. Also discussed are the determinants of rural non-agricultural employment. There exist quite large regional variations in the ratio of non-agricultural to total employment in rural areas and an exploration of the reasons underlying these variations could hopefully provide some basis for judging how far they are amenable to manipulation by policy Salient Features of Labour Use in Rural India FOR a long time the decennial population rensuses were the only source of information on the pattern of employment in rural India: Every census gives some idea of the proportion of rural population engaged in economic activity, and their distribution by sector of employment. Pretty detailed sectoral break-up of the working population is generally available upto the state level though at the district level only broad sectoral pattern of employment is published. However, problems of determining the activity status of particular individuals, the fact that workers often do several types of work covering different 'sectors', and the difficulties of capturing the intensity of employment in a short questionnaire administered at a single point of time have severely limited the usefulness of their data. In order to overcome these problems, the NSS took up intensive surveys of a scientifically selected sample of the population from rural and urban areas all over India. Though these surveys were started in the fifties, it took time to evolve suitable standardised concepts and procedures

Contract Labour in a Steel Plant-A Study for a Trade Union

A Study for a Trade Union A Group of Researchers Contractual production has been increasing steadily in even the most organised sectors, in the most modern industries as well as in the public sector which boasts of being a 'model employer' Since the sixties the government policy has been definitely favourable to the growth of this archaic system. Contract labour which accounts for a significant proportion of the total labour force in the large-scale industries is also the most disgruntled and the most militant. The contract labour force often consists predominantly of depressed sections of society and populist movements in the region often find good support here.

Microelectronics for Small-Scale Production

A S Bhalla The problems of small-scale production and industrialisation in the past have been manifold: tack of local purchasing power, inadequate credit facilities, poor infrastructure and ill-equipped local institutions, etc. These handicaps coupled with competition from large-scale mass production of goods has kept decentralised production in check.

Public Enterprises in India-If Not for Profit Then for What

If Not for Profit Then for What? Prajapati Trivedi Public enterprises should not be evaluated on the basis of the same criteria as private enterprises, though, like private enterprises, they must be evaluated.

Bureaucracy and Development

Satya Deva The theory of bureaucracy suffers from contradictions and has reached an impasse, Weber's contribution lies, not in discovering the characteristics of bureaucracy, since these were mentioned by Kautilya and Hegel before him, but in legitimising it, in the face of Marx's criticism, on the ground of its rationality, indicated chiefly by its use of specialised knowledge. However, he confuses between specialisation of function and specialisation of knowledge, and fails to realise the significance of the fact that generalist administrators are given higher status and emoluments than specialists. He also tries to ignore the fact that bureaucratisation involves exploitation and alienation, which interfere with the utilisation and growth of science and technology.

PAKISTAN-Which Foreign Hand

Which 'Foreign Hand'? Babar Ali IN an interview with the New York Times, President Zia rather boldly accused Benazir Bhutto of receiving funds and support from the Soviet Unidn during the August 1986 MRD movement. This allegation is based on pure speculation and conjecture as Zia himself admitted "I have no proof, I simply ,say so''. The following report appeared in The Muslim, Pakistan's leading English daily on November 4: "Prime minister Mohammad Khan Junejo disclosed here today that he had been receiving reports about the involvement of a foreign hand in the recent wave of violence which has suddenly swept several cities of the country". The chief minister of Sind in an address to a "cross section of people" on November 5 in Hyderabad said that recent clashes in Karachi and Hyderabad were the result of an "international conspiracy" against Pakistan.

Social Work Approach to Women s Oppression

to Women's Oppression Gabriele Dietrich Women, Tradition and Culture by Malladi Subbamma; Sterling Publishers, New Delhi, 1985; pp 135, Rs 70. THIS book is written by the chairperson of the Indian Radical Humanist Association, Malladi Subbamma, a well known Telugu writer and journalist and, as the jacket text says, "a crusader for women's emancipation". It consists of a collection of twenty- six essays, most of them just a few pages long.

Arms Production in Third World-Reality, Myth and Nightmare

Arms Production in Third World Reality, Myth and Nightmare Dipak Ghosh Arms Production in the Third World by Michael Brzoska and Thomas Ohlson (eds); Taylor and Francis, London and Philadelphia, 1986;

Computers, Industrial Development and Workers

Bagaram Tulpule Current official thinking assigns a central place and role to electronics and computers in our country's thrust towards faster economic and industrial development and technological modernisation. High hopes have been generated in the country among various sections about what computers will do for us.

Birds in a Cage-Changes in Bengali Social Life as Recorded in Autobiographies by Women

Changes in Bengali Social Life as Recorded in Autobiographies by Women Srabashi Ghosh "Birds in a Cage", that is how Rasasundari, a self-taught lady and the first Bengali autobiographer described the condition of women in her book published in 1876. The autobiography of Manikuntala, a front-ranking leader of the undivided Communist Party, was published in 1982. In between we find quite a few autobiographies written by Bengali women. Their accounts span the better part of two centuries.

Feminism in a Traditional Society

Feminism in a Traditional Society? Feminism in a Traditional Society: Women of the Manipur Valley by Manjusri Chaki-Sircar; Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1984; pp xiii + 247, Rs 150.

Language and Power-Cross-Sex Communicative Strategies in Hindi and Indian English

Cross-Sex Communicative Strategies in Hindi and Indian English Tamara Valentine Understanding the strategies and patterns in cross-sex conversations can offer insight and help clarify some of the many problems of discourse in societies today. Such research can show how the social diversity and variation, not only in terms of varied gender, but ethnicity age, social class, etc, affect conversational management and can provide insight into the processes of discourse in heterogeneous communities such as those of varied gender, age, social status as well as of different languages.

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