ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Incorporation of Indian Subcontinent into Capitalist World-Economy

Capitalist World-Economy Immanuel Wallerstein This paper puts the case for perceiving the Indian subcontinent before 1750 as a zone largely external to the operations of the then Europe-based capitalist world-economy and to see 1750-1850 as the period during which it, along with many other parts of the world, was incorporated into the world-economy. It is argued that incorporation involved a restructuring of production processes and the creation of apolitical entity (or entities) operating within the rules of the interstate system. In the latter case, such an entity definitely does not have to be a colonial state. Indeed, in this period, the juridical structure of India was exceptional rather than usual, and the author has sought to trace the processess by which this exception occurred.

Agrarian Class Formation in Modern Bengal, 1931-51

Bengal, 1931-51 Saugata Mukherji Changes in the forms of credit or capital supply in Bengal agriculture in the thirties and the forties were ultimately reflected in the changing methods of land control and management. These developments of the thirties led to a sharp polarisation between the two segments of the cultivating population which was articulated as an acute conflict between the two classes over large areas of undivided Bengal by the following decade. This paper examines the causes and extent of the restructuring of class relations in Bengal, ft also looks at the situation of the labour force at the time of transfer of power and partition and the consequences of war time policies on the economy of the region.

Direction of Change in Performance of All Crops in Indian Agriculture in Late 1970s-A Look at the Level of Districts and Agro-Climatic Regions

in Indian Agriculture in Late 1970s A Look at the Level of Districts and Agro-Climatic Regions S Mahendra Dev One of the criticisms against the new strategy of agricultural development, which is identified with HYV technology, is that it has widened regional disparities in agricultural performance. This paper examines whether such disparities have in fact widened. Changes in regional disparities for all crops in terms of output per area and output per capita (to take account of demographic pressures) and the interconnections between the two measures are examined across agro-climatic regions in late 1970s as compared to early 1970s and 1960s. Also examined ore differences in the levels of output per area and output per capita across different growth classes.

Work Participation of Rural Women in Third World-Some Data and Conceptual Biases

Some Data and Conceptual Biases Bina Agarwal There continues to be little appreciation that problems of unemployment, poverty and destitution are in many instances gender-specific so that any serious attempt to alleviate these conditions and/or prevent their further aggravation would require a particular focus on the women of poor households. The accuracy of national level statistics, which usually serve as the principal data input in the framing of development policies, is severely impaired by biases which lead to an undercounting of women, both as workers and as those available for work. This paper seeks to spell out the nature and sources of these data biases and attempts to provide pointers on how they could be corrected and some of the data gaps filled.

The Domain of Rural Labour Markets-Results of a Survey in West Bengal, 1981-82

Results of a Survey in West Bengal, 1981-82 Pranab Bardhan Ashok Rudra The boundaries of the village labour market in an agrarian economy are often rather narrowly delimited and heavily dependent on social and territorial affinities. Even where there is a fairly rigorous market for agricultural labour, particularly for seasonal operations, the operation of this market sometimes does not extend very strongly beyond the cor\fines of the village or beyond some local neighbourhoods. This paper reports the results of a survey of five clusters of neighbouring villages carried out in West Bengal in 1981-82. The authors find some significant, though varying, evidence of territorial segmentation of the rural labour market and of limited labour mobility even within adjacent territories.

Pattern of Commercial Farming in Guntur District

Guntur District V N Reddy In recent debates on the changes in Indian agriculture, commercial farming occupies an important place. Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh is regarded as one of the leading areas in regard to commercialisation of agriculture. The district is well known for tobacco and chillies. After the advent of the Nagarjuna Sagar waters in 1968-69, it has gained a distinct place in the country's cotton map on account of its significant contribution to the production of import-substituting superior long and extra-long staple cottons like MCU-5, Varalaxmi and Suvin. The cultivation of these varieties of cotton requires substantial monetary outlays as welt as careful application of techniques like crop rotation, preparatory tillage, etc, for better yields. During the period 1970-71 to 1979-80, there has been a four-fold increase in the average value per hectare from the cotton crop in Guntur district.

Small Horsepower Diesel Engine Industry in India-A Systems Study

in India A Systems Study R Bandyopadhyay S Datta There are conflicting views about the future of the small horsepower diesel engine industry. While some are optimistic about the bright future of the industry, some doubt its very survival. Further, in view of the energy crisis, it is imperative that for any future development of the industry the aspects of alternative fuels and saving of fuel should be examined in a systemic way.

Quality of Working Life-Some Issues in the Indian Context

Some Issues in the Indian Context Anil K Sengupta The paper argues that the concept of quality of working life is much more broad-based than what Us promoters in India have tended to project. The concept encompasses within itself not only better designed jobs but also several other inter-related elements. Any attempt to improve quality of working life that overlooks this basic fact is bound to fail. The paper also argues that the question of improving the quality of working life in developing countries like India would have to be considered not in relation to only some selective aspects of the development process such as the type of technology or work organisation used but in relation to the entire strategy of development of these countries.

An Integrated View of Entrepreneurship

Dwijendra Tripathi The terms 'entrepreneur' and 'entrepreneurship' have generated considerable debate in recent years. However, there is considerable conceptual confusion about these terms which helps neither entrepreneurial research nor the programmes for entrepreneurial development. The paper seeks to clarify this confusion of concepts by examining the historical evolution of the term and the changes in its conceptual meaning. Based on this analysis the author presents a schema for understanding the process of entrepreneurship. The author concludes that although entrepreneurship must remain confined to the economic sphere it cannot be comprehended without reference to factors other than the economic alone.

Role of Indian Worker in Early Phase of Industrialisation-A Critique of Established View, with Special Reference to Tata Iron and Steel Co, 1910-30

of Industrialisation A Critique of Established View, with Special Reference to Tata Iron and Steel Co, 1910-30 Satyabrata Datta Accounts of the Indian worker in the early phase of the country's industrialisation proceed on the assumption of the low level of his technical skill and industrial efficiency. Now, the question of skill/lack of skill or efficiency/ inefficiency of Indian labour involves both theoretical and empirical considerations. None of the accounts of the early Indian industrial worker, however, bases its arguments on a clear theoretical position. At the same time, a critical enquiry into the TISCO workers' performance calls into question also the empirical validity of this view of Indian labour This paper is in two parts. In the first part, attempts are made to problematise certain theoretical issues. Apart from showing the theoretical inadequacies of the established view of Indian labour, the author focuses on the discussion around the theme of skill/efficiency. In the second part of the paper, the empirical fallacies in the established view of the Indian worker are taken up. The author discusses how in this view illiteracy and the alleged low level of skill of the Indian worker are seen as interdependent. Also taken up for consideration are the ideological motivations that shaped the established view of labour as well as the question of the comparative efficiency of Indian and Western labour.

Freedom Denied-Indian Women and Indentureship in Trinidad and Tobago, 1845-1917

One of the long-held myths about Indian women immigrants in Trinidad and Tobago is that they migrated with their families under the power, authority and control of their male relatives and were docile and tractable. These views ignore the historical documentation on the 'Indian Women Problem' which confronted the colonial office as far back as 1845 when Indian indentureship to Trinidad began. Contemporary research in women's history has revealed that a large proportion of Indian women did make a conscious decision to seek a new life elsewhere. They came as workers and not as dependents. However, the planters saw women as 'unproductive' labour and policies facilitated their exploitation as cheap labour In addition the hierarchical social structure of the Brahminic- Sanskritic tradition brought about a conflation of interests between migrant Indian men and the colonial capital. Indian women in the colonies did not easily or willingly submit to these designs.

City and Countryside in Colonial Tanganyika

The colonial solution in Tanganyika attempted to stabilise the working class and restrict African settlement in town solely to permanently employed workers and the middle classes: In order to successfully carry this out, the African extended family system was attacked, and the nuclear family was encouraged. The secondary economy was heavily taxed, regulated, and wherever possible, undermined. 'Staff associations' or 'workers councils9 were promoted among workers to counter the labour movement. Women became central actors and targets in the struggle to impose the colonial solution.

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