ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Credit Markets in Rural South India

M J Bhende This study analyses aspects of rural financial markets in three villages of three agroclimatic zones of peninsular South India. In the Andhra Pradesh village private moneylenders are an important source of credit, whereas in the Maharashtra village co-operative societies and land development banks play an important role. Institutional credit is concentrated in the richer households having large farm and family size, and headed by more educated, older heads. On the other hand, those households who farmed more land but were less educated, and had fewer livestock and more irrigated area relied more heavily on informal credit. Borrowers usually succeed in diverting credit from the stipulated purpose to others. The largest defaulters are those households who have borrowed most from institutional sources. Relatively, households with larger families and higher dependencv ratios are more care to default.

Agriculture, Employment and Poverty

V M Dandekar One of the fundamental problems of development is whether removal or alleviation of poverty can be left to the general course of economic development or whether a direct attack would be necessary and successful. The purpose of the present paper is to delineate the course of public policy and performance in India in both these directions.

Administrative Style and Government Purpose

A P Saxena The administrative apparatus along with its systems and procedures is becoming complex, even cumbersome. At the same time the rising expectations of the people at large make it increasingly clear that expeditious achievement of government purpose is crucial, which in turn is related to administrative style. The article suggests a package of measures to minimise the situation of dissonance and promote increasing convergence between administrative style and government purpose.

Experiment in Workers Management-Sonali Tea Garden, 1973-1981

Sonali Tea Garden, 1973-1981 Ratna Sen This article deals with an experiment in workers' management of a tea garden in the eastern region of India. While the experiment related informal terms to the creation of a co-operative for take-over of a tea estate abandoned by its owners, the main point of interest is the efficient management of the garden by the workers who nursed it back from a point of sickness to a position of health without any of the traditional accoutrements of management.

New information Technologies and Developing Countries-Implications for Human Resources Development

Developing Countries Implications for Human Resources Development Dieter Ernst Private firms based in the major OECD countries are under increasing pressure to expand the worldwide proliferation of their technologies, penetrate or at least retain increasingly protected markets and spread (he excessive cost burden of research and development. On the other hand, the process of transferring and disseminating technology, once started, is increasingly eroding the capacity of these very firms, including the most powerful multinational corporations, to control this technology, i e, to remain in a position of technological dominance.

Delhi Textile Strike-Implications of Linking Wages to Productivity

Implications of Linking Wages to Productivity Sharat G Lin Following the precedents in Bombay and Coimbatore, the Delhi textile strike has once again raised the issue of linking wages to productivity. In practice the major impact of such provisions is not to increase production through incentives to workers, but rather to enable management to rationalise reductions in workforce in order to reduce the man-machine ratio. Unlike in Tamil Nadu where labour productivity in the cotton textile industry is rising, in Delhi it is decisively declining. This means that if present trends continue and wages are linked to productivity, real wages may be expected to decline in Delhi. This is only a part of the broader dilemmas faced by a dying industry.

Health Information Systems in India

S K Sanyal The efficiency of any information system depends on a correct assessment of data requirements based on an appraisal of the demands made by individual users and on the methodologies adopted in collection of data, Health is a resultant of a multiplicity of factors and these put great demands on the information system that could be visualised for the health sector ft not only implies a wide base of information with inter-sectoral linkages, but a close monitoring of the progress made in the improvement of the health status. The paper outlines a framework of an information system for assessing and monitoring the level of health.

Productivity and Monetary Incentives-Indian Experience

Indian Experience Subratesh Ghosh Since the sixties there has been widespread controversy, based on studies conducted mostly in the advanced industrial countries of the west, on the role of monetary incentives in motivating workers to better work efforts and consequently raising productivity This paper examines the role of money as an incentive to work performance in India, which is taken as a representative case of the overpopulated developing economies in the third world.

Commercial Capital and Agrarian Relations-A Study of Guntur Tobacco Economy

A Study of Guntur Tobacco Economy Nata Duvvury This paper discusses the dynamics of tobacco cultivation and trade in Guntur region. Flue-cured Virginia tobacco was introduced in India by a subsidiary of the British American Tobacco Company, the leading cigarette conglomerate In the initial phase, the company closely supervised and controlled cultivation. This control was achieved by its monopoly of the new technology and a system of contracts between the company and the cultivators. The author examines the impact of the new crop on the agrarian structure

Theories of Unequal Exchange-A Critique of Emmanuel and Amin

A Critique of Emmanuel and Amin Nirmal Kumar Chandra The theory of unequal exchange, the author argues, is quite unsound and does not advance our knowledge of why the economic distance between the North and most countries in the South is increasing with the passage of time. The writings of Arghiri Emmanuel or Samir Amin do contain many useful insights that serious students of economic developments can hardly afford to miss. Their main fault lies, however, in constructing a simplistic theory with an extremely small number of variables and quantifying them in a manner that suits the theory rather than the facts; they hardly realise that the variables properly estimated could often stand the theory on its head.

Constraints on the Development of a Land

Market in Meghalaya M K Sukumaran Nair In large parts of India the penetration of colonial markets and the emerging bourgeois property relations have led to extensive alienation of tribal lands reducing the tribal people to wage labour. In the north east however, more particularly in Meghalaya, the traditional kinship-based land relations have largely been preserved. Even though private ownership has emerged to some extent, especially in urban and semi-urban areas, only comparatively rarely does land appear to be acquired or disposed of through purchase or sale. The paper looks at the precise nature of this process of preservation of traditional land relations as they have unfolded in Meghalaya.


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