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AUSTRIA-Shadows from the Past

would have the blessings of the awam, the janata. The movement lasted just a few days and they fizzled out. Even the charismatic and popular Benazir Bhutto was not able to keep her cadre involved in the movement. The end result was 37 dead including ten army personnel. Of the remaining 27, six died in Lahore and one presumes that the rest died in Sind. Thus 27 dead, who were from the a warn, were not enough to raise the passion of the democracy-seekers to keep their struggle going. On the other hand, just one Mohajir killed by a speeding minibus driven by a Pakhtun, can result in ethnic clashes which disrupt a city of seven million for at least a week.

Intersectoral Terms of Trade in India-A Study of Concept and Method

A Study of Concept and Method Nalini Vittal The issues of inter-sectoral terms of trade are issues of political economy. To equate them with endless calculations is to deflect the debate. To use these calculations to argue for an arbitrary 'equivalence' is based on a complete misunderstanding of the role of agriculture within the economy. Development implies a faster rate of growth of the non-agricultural sector, and to press for a mathematical parity, and that through higher agricultural prices, is to make nonsense of a critical issue. Further, the author attempts to show in this paper, the entire exercise is faulty purely in terms of its arithmetic.

PAKISTAN-Which Foreign Hand

Which 'Foreign Hand'? Babar Ali IN an interview with the New York Times, President Zia rather boldly accused Benazir Bhutto of receiving funds and support from the Soviet Unidn during the August 1986 MRD movement. This allegation is based on pure speculation and conjecture as Zia himself admitted "I have no proof, I simply ,say so''. The following report appeared in The Muslim, Pakistan's leading English daily on November 4: "Prime minister Mohammad Khan Junejo disclosed here today that he had been receiving reports about the involvement of a foreign hand in the recent wave of violence which has suddenly swept several cities of the country". The chief minister of Sind in an address to a "cross section of people" on November 5 in Hyderabad said that recent clashes in Karachi and Hyderabad were the result of an "international conspiracy" against Pakistan.

Social Work Approach to Women s Oppression

to Women's Oppression Gabriele Dietrich Women, Tradition and Culture by Malladi Subbamma; Sterling Publishers, New Delhi, 1985; pp 135, Rs 70. THIS book is written by the chairperson of the Indian Radical Humanist Association, Malladi Subbamma, a well known Telugu writer and journalist and, as the jacket text says, "a crusader for women's emancipation". It consists of a collection of twenty- six essays, most of them just a few pages long.

Arms Production in Third World-Reality, Myth and Nightmare

Arms Production in Third World Reality, Myth and Nightmare Dipak Ghosh Arms Production in the Third World by Michael Brzoska and Thomas Ohlson (eds); Taylor and Francis, London and Philadelphia, 1986;

Computers, Industrial Development and Workers

Bagaram Tulpule Current official thinking assigns a central place and role to electronics and computers in our country's thrust towards faster economic and industrial development and technological modernisation. High hopes have been generated in the country among various sections about what computers will do for us.

Contract Labour in a Steel Plant-A Study for a Trade Union

A Study for a Trade Union A Group of Researchers Contractual production has been increasing steadily in even the most organised sectors, in the most modern industries as well as in the public sector which boasts of being a 'model employer' Since the sixties the government policy has been definitely favourable to the growth of this archaic system. Contract labour which accounts for a significant proportion of the total labour force in the large-scale industries is also the most disgruntled and the most militant. The contract labour force often consists predominantly of depressed sections of society and populist movements in the region often find good support here.

Microelectronics for Small-Scale Production

A S Bhalla The problems of small-scale production and industrialisation in the past have been manifold: tack of local purchasing power, inadequate credit facilities, poor infrastructure and ill-equipped local institutions, etc. These handicaps coupled with competition from large-scale mass production of goods has kept decentralised production in check.

Public Enterprises in India-If Not for Profit Then for What

If Not for Profit Then for What? Prajapati Trivedi Public enterprises should not be evaluated on the basis of the same criteria as private enterprises, though, like private enterprises, they must be evaluated.

Bureaucracy and Development

Satya Deva The theory of bureaucracy suffers from contradictions and has reached an impasse, Weber's contribution lies, not in discovering the characteristics of bureaucracy, since these were mentioned by Kautilya and Hegel before him, but in legitimising it, in the face of Marx's criticism, on the ground of its rationality, indicated chiefly by its use of specialised knowledge. However, he confuses between specialisation of function and specialisation of knowledge, and fails to realise the significance of the fact that generalist administrators are given higher status and emoluments than specialists. He also tries to ignore the fact that bureaucratisation involves exploitation and alienation, which interfere with the utilisation and growth of science and technology.

Birds in a Cage-Changes in Bengali Social Life as Recorded in Autobiographies by Women

Changes in Bengali Social Life as Recorded in Autobiographies by Women Srabashi Ghosh "Birds in a Cage", that is how Rasasundari, a self-taught lady and the first Bengali autobiographer described the condition of women in her book published in 1876. The autobiography of Manikuntala, a front-ranking leader of the undivided Communist Party, was published in 1982. In between we find quite a few autobiographies written by Bengali women. Their accounts span the better part of two centuries.

Feminism in a Traditional Society

Feminism in a Traditional Society? Feminism in a Traditional Society: Women of the Manipur Valley by Manjusri Chaki-Sircar; Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1984; pp xiii + 247, Rs 150.

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