ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Theories of Unequal Exchange-A Critique of Emmanuel and Amin

A Critique of Emmanuel and Amin Nirmal Kumar Chandra The theory of unequal exchange, the author argues, is quite unsound and does not advance our knowledge of why the economic distance between the North and most countries in the South is increasing with the passage of time. The writings of Arghiri Emmanuel or Samir Amin do contain many useful insights that serious students of economic developments can hardly afford to miss. Their main fault lies, however, in constructing a simplistic theory with an extremely small number of variables and quantifying them in a manner that suits the theory rather than the facts; they hardly realise that the variables properly estimated could often stand the theory on its head.

Constraints on the Development of a Land

Market in Meghalaya M K Sukumaran Nair In large parts of India the penetration of colonial markets and the emerging bourgeois property relations have led to extensive alienation of tribal lands reducing the tribal people to wage labour. In the north east however, more particularly in Meghalaya, the traditional kinship-based land relations have largely been preserved. Even though private ownership has emerged to some extent, especially in urban and semi-urban areas, only comparatively rarely does land appear to be acquired or disposed of through purchase or sale. The paper looks at the precise nature of this process of preservation of traditional land relations as they have unfolded in Meghalaya.

Growth of Labour Productivity in Indian Agriculture-Regional Dimensions

in Indian Agriculture Regional Dimensions S Mahendra Dev This paper examines the growth of labour productivity in agriculture during the period between the triennia 1962-65 and 1975-78 at the level of all-India and for 56 agro-climatic regions and the contributions of yield, cropping intensity and land-labour ratio to the increase/decrease of labour productivity in each of these agro- climatic regions. Finally, the author discusses the association between the level of labour productivity in agriculture and rural poverty.

Land Reforms in India An Analysis

D Bandyopadhyay The Sixth Five-Year Plan had indicated a time-frame for completing various tasks under land reforms. Legisla- tion for conferment of ownership rights on tenants was to be enacted by 1981-82. The programme for taking over possession and distribution of ceiling surplus land was to have been completed by 1982-83. Both these tasks still remain unachieved.

From Prosperity to Retrogression-Indian Cultivators during the 1970s

Indian Cultivators during the 1970s Dalip S Swamy Ashok Gulati The net income of the Indian farmer has been continuously falling since 1971. This is primarily accounted for by adverse price movements. There has been an erosion of price margin over cost. Paradoxically the faster growing non-agricultural sector is able to sustain a higher rate of price increase year after year. This deterioration in the inter-sectoral terms of trade has resulted in the immuniseration of farmers in India.

Growth of Productivity in Indian Agriculture-Some Unfinished Components of Dharm Narain s Work

Some Unfinished Components of Dharm Narain's Work C G Ranade In his pioneering article on the sources of growth of agricultural productivity during 1952-53 to 1972-73 in India, the late Dharm Narain had shown that in the period prior to the Green Revolution, the locational shift of crops had significantly contributed to growth along with the cropping pattern effect, while in the latter period it was the pure yield effect which was mainly responsible for growth. There are, however, anomalies in the data used by him. With the data corrected for the anomalies one gets an exactly opposite result. An extension of his work for the period upto 1982-83 suggests that locational shifts in fact became important in the post-Green Revolution period as area under short duration rice varieties expanded in Punjab and Haryana.

Risk Benefits, Crop Insurance, and Dryland Agriculture

Dryland Agriculture T S Walker R P Singh M Asokan Participation by farmers in voluntary, public-sector crop insurance programmes has historically been low. We analyse one important determinant of farmers' participation

Labour and Management-First Twenty Years of Assam Company Limited (1839-59)

First Twenty Years of Assam Company Limited (1839-59) Kalyan K Sircar Not much work has been done on the labour-management relations in Indian industries of an early period when there were no formal trade unions, political parties or special labour legislation as such to mediate This paper enquires into the conditions prevailing in the plantation industry during its formative years, 1839-59. In those days, the Assam Company was the sole representative of this industry in India, and recruits from the Kachari tribe of Assam accounted for, unlike in later times, most of its labour force. Because of ethnic homogeneity, proximity of the plantations to their home districts and the free mobility they enjoyed, the Kachari labour force was often able to fight back and gain important concessions from the Company management. Themselves illiterate though, they made continuous efforts to settle wage rates and disputes through collective bargaining and to obtain written undertakings from the management Keen on pushing the wages further down and on resisting labour combination, the Assam Company therefore decided after 1859 to recruit the bulk of its labour from outside Assam and keep (hem bonded. To facilitate this, the colonial government introduced restrictive labour legislation, thereby permitting the planters to restrict free mobility and right to combination of their labourers. Kacharis opted out of the new indenture system, even as famine-stricken people by thousands were recruited thereunder from new labour catchment areas outside Assam, during the decades that followed. Among, such new recruits were various groups of tribesmen, designated in the records as 'hill cooli, dhangar and boonah (jungle-dwelling), etc.

Corporate Investment in 1986-A Forecast

A Forecast R H Patil Ranjana Pendharkar This paper attempts to make a forecast of the growth in private corporate investment in 1986. Corporate investment covered here includes gross capital expenditure of all companies in the private and joint sectors. The level and Composition of corporate investment in 1985 is also presented here.

Accountability of Government Audit in India

K P Joseph There is a delusion among the officials of the Audit Department and some academics and government officials that our Audit is among the best in the world and many professional people in other countries also seem to share this opinion. This impression is based on an insufficient study of our procedures and practices and a failure to take notice of contemporary government audit trends in other advanced countries.

Mass Banking Management Problems

R Bandyopadhyay Before one can examine the management processes and problems arising out of mass banking, attention needs to be focused on the character and conceptual foundations of mass banking. An attempt is, therefore, made here to examine the nature and content of mass banking in India, with special reference to its need and linkage to the process of development. Later the nature of the managerial problems that mass banking has thrown up and ways and means of tackling them are analysed.

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