ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Surplus, Accumulation and Growth

History of economic thought has been marked by both continuity and change. Insofar as economics as a discipline is not concerned with an undifferentiated and unhistorical reality, change is to be expected. It is the continuity- change combination which is a matter of interest and is indicative of the fact that the core of bourgeois thought is essentially ahistoric. The intermeshing of continuity and change in varying proportions has often had a retrogressive effect and the so-called 'revolutions

AUSTRIA-Shadows from the Past

would have the blessings of the awam, the janata. The movement lasted just a few days and they fizzled out. Even the charismatic and popular Benazir Bhutto was not able to keep her cadre involved in the movement. The end result was 37 dead including ten army personnel. Of the remaining 27, six died in Lahore and one presumes that the rest died in Sind. Thus 27 dead, who were from the a warn, were not enough to raise the passion of the democracy-seekers to keep their struggle going. On the other hand, just one Mohajir killed by a speeding minibus driven by a Pakhtun, can result in ethnic clashes which disrupt a city of seven million for at least a week.

Intersectoral Terms of Trade in India-A Study of Concept and Method

A Study of Concept and Method Nalini Vittal The issues of inter-sectoral terms of trade are issues of political economy. To equate them with endless calculations is to deflect the debate. To use these calculations to argue for an arbitrary 'equivalence' is based on a complete misunderstanding of the role of agriculture within the economy. Development implies a faster rate of growth of the non-agricultural sector, and to press for a mathematical parity, and that through higher agricultural prices, is to make nonsense of a critical issue. Further, the author attempts to show in this paper, the entire exercise is faulty purely in terms of its arithmetic.

PAKISTAN-Ethnicity and Democracy

Ethnicity and Democracy ON September 18 this year, Shia Muslims were mourning the death of their Imam Hussian who along with seventy of his family members was killed in Karbala in Iraq many centuries ago. On that day, the tenth of Muharram, processions are taken out by the Shia community in all the large and small cities of this country. This particular year, the majority Sunni Muslims of Pakistan are said to have attacked the Shia processionists in various cities all over the Punjab. The result was that in Leiah four people were killed; in Multan one was killed; in Bahawalpur one, and in Lahore three were killed and at least.60 were injured. In Dera Ismail Khan an armed clash between the Shias and Sunnis took place which resulted in injuries to seven individuals. The army had to be called out in these cities of the Punjab and curfew was imposed for many days in Lahore and in Dera Ismail Khan.

A Scheme for Defining of Agriculture Regions in West Bengal by Cluster Analysis

in West Bengal by Cluster Analysis Snigdha Chakrabarti This paper considers fifteen of the sixteen districts of West Bengal where there is agricultural activity and poses the problem of how to combine them into a certain number of groups. The need for such a grouping has long been felt by planning authorities in the country for regional planning at the level of a geographical unit smaller than the state but bigger than the district.

Farmers Organisation in Large Irrigation Projects

Farmers' Organisation in Large Irrigation Projects Niranjan Pant The paper advocates the necessity of farmers' organisation at the watercourse level in large irrigation projects in India. The Utility of such an organisation is evidenced in the findings of the scholars all over the world. Despite various government pronouncements about the necessity of farmers' organisation, they are in a state of infancy in India. The relevant issues concerning farmers1 organisation which are required to be resolved before such organisations are built in to the irrigation projects are as follows: I) The Role of the Government/the Agency 2) Farmers' participation: before or after OFD Works 3) Single versus multi functions 4) One tier versus multi tier 5) Village based versus channel based 6) Lesions from indigenous systems. The paper outlines the factors contributing to the success of such an organisation. The factors deduced from a successful case of farmers' organisation studied by us earlier are: i) Good leadership; ii) Adequate and reliable water supply; iii) Greater interaction between the officials and the farmers; iv) Easy unanimity among group members; v) Inducement from the government/the agency; and vi) Legitimacy of the organisation.

Labour Use in Rural India-A Study of Spatial and Temporal Variations

A Study of Spatial and Temporal Variations A Vaidyanathan This paper examines inter-state and inter-district variations in total labour input into agriculture per unit of area and the reasons for these variations. Also discussed are the determinants of rural non-agricultural employment. There exist quite large regional variations in the ratio of non-agricultural to total employment in rural areas and an exploration of the reasons underlying these variations could hopefully provide some basis for judging how far they are amenable to manipulation by policy Salient Features of Labour Use in Rural India FOR a long time the decennial population rensuses were the only source of information on the pattern of employment in rural India: Every census gives some idea of the proportion of rural population engaged in economic activity, and their distribution by sector of employment. Pretty detailed sectoral break-up of the working population is generally available upto the state level though at the district level only broad sectoral pattern of employment is published. However, problems of determining the activity status of particular individuals, the fact that workers often do several types of work covering different 'sectors', and the difficulties of capturing the intensity of employment in a short questionnaire administered at a single point of time have severely limited the usefulness of their data. In order to overcome these problems, the NSS took up intensive surveys of a scientifically selected sample of the population from rural and urban areas all over India. Though these surveys were started in the fifties, it took time to evolve suitable standardised concepts and procedures

Microelectronics for Small-Scale Production

A S Bhalla The problems of small-scale production and industrialisation in the past have been manifold: tack of local purchasing power, inadequate credit facilities, poor infrastructure and ill-equipped local institutions, etc. These handicaps coupled with competition from large-scale mass production of goods has kept decentralised production in check.

Public Enterprises in India-If Not for Profit Then for What

If Not for Profit Then for What? Prajapati Trivedi Public enterprises should not be evaluated on the basis of the same criteria as private enterprises, though, like private enterprises, they must be evaluated.

Bureaucracy and Development

Satya Deva The theory of bureaucracy suffers from contradictions and has reached an impasse, Weber's contribution lies, not in discovering the characteristics of bureaucracy, since these were mentioned by Kautilya and Hegel before him, but in legitimising it, in the face of Marx's criticism, on the ground of its rationality, indicated chiefly by its use of specialised knowledge. However, he confuses between specialisation of function and specialisation of knowledge, and fails to realise the significance of the fact that generalist administrators are given higher status and emoluments than specialists. He also tries to ignore the fact that bureaucratisation involves exploitation and alienation, which interfere with the utilisation and growth of science and technology.

PAKISTAN-Which Foreign Hand

Which 'Foreign Hand'? Babar Ali IN an interview with the New York Times, President Zia rather boldly accused Benazir Bhutto of receiving funds and support from the Soviet Unidn during the August 1986 MRD movement. This allegation is based on pure speculation and conjecture as Zia himself admitted "I have no proof, I simply ,say so''. The following report appeared in The Muslim, Pakistan's leading English daily on November 4: "Prime minister Mohammad Khan Junejo disclosed here today that he had been receiving reports about the involvement of a foreign hand in the recent wave of violence which has suddenly swept several cities of the country". The chief minister of Sind in an address to a "cross section of people" on November 5 in Hyderabad said that recent clashes in Karachi and Hyderabad were the result of an "international conspiracy" against Pakistan.

Social Work Approach to Women s Oppression

to Women's Oppression Gabriele Dietrich Women, Tradition and Culture by Malladi Subbamma; Sterling Publishers, New Delhi, 1985; pp 135, Rs 70. THIS book is written by the chairperson of the Indian Radical Humanist Association, Malladi Subbamma, a well known Telugu writer and journalist and, as the jacket text says, "a crusader for women's emancipation". It consists of a collection of twenty- six essays, most of them just a few pages long.

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