ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Poverty among Identified Weaker Sections in Rajasthan

The structure and distribution of poverty groups measured in terms of size of landholding, value of assets, caste or unemployment, is not uniform throughout the country. In Rajasthan which by 1968 had become one of highest poverty states the data show some distinct features. This paper examines the position of the generally identified rural poverty groups in the state in terms of the distribution of consumption expenditure, income, assets and liabilities as well as food consumption patterns for both all-rural population and the weaker sections. What emerges is that the consumption levels of a significant number of labour households are higher than those of other sections of the population; that rural labour households are not necessarily the poorer sections; and that in fact, small cultivators turn out to be the worst sufferers.

Multinationals and Development-Elitist Perspectives

Oil and Other Multinationals in India by M S Patwardhan, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, p 140, Price Rs 150 IN recent years the door has been opened wide for largescale inflow of foreign capital into this country. Liberalisation of imports of foreign private capital and of 'high technology' has become the craze. M S Patwardhan's book "Oil and Multinationals in India" is in accord with this policy. The author was the first and the last Indian chief executive of the erstwhile Burmah Shell group of companies in India and is currently the managing director of NOCIL, a joint venture of the Royal Dutch Shell and the Mafatlals.

Public Accountability and Audit in India

Central to any study of accountability in government is the role of government audit, which has a vital role in helping the executive and the legislature to ensure that public money is spent properly and to assure the public that it gets value for its money The Indian constitution has conferred complete independence and extensive powers on the auditor general to enable him to discharge his functions unhindered by anyone.

Involvement of Business Houses in Rural Development-A Case Study

Indian business houses began to diversify into agri-business in the mid-sixties, often in collaboration with multinationals. However, as the purchasing power of the Indian farmer is limited, except for a small section in the green revolution areas, the major buyer the business houses have sought is the government which has tried to modernise agriculture by providing a variety of subsidies. These subsidies have progressively increased and are heaviest in areas designated as 'tribal', 'backward

Financial Innovations and Credit Market Evolution

Financial innovations reduce transaction costs and risk and so bring about a widening and deepening of capital markets and contribute to acceleration of economic development through the favourable impact on saving, investment and output. This paper examines the relationship between finance and development and the nature and characteristics of financial innovations. The author discusses the role of policy intervention in quickening the pace of financial development. A case study of an innovative bank is used to illustrate innovations essential for financing small farm and non-farm enterprises and mobilising resources from middle and tow income groups in developing countries.

Sengupta Report on Public Enterprises-Eloquent Fuzziness at Its Best

A number of major policy initiatives toward public enterprises are being pushed vigorously by the government. Phrases like "MOUs" ''holding companies" and "privatisation" have become a part of the current economic jargon. A closer examination reveals that they have spawned out of a common source

Women s Contribution to Agricultural Economy in Hill Regions of North-West India

Hill Regions of North-West India J P Bhati D V Singh While the conditions of women in the plains have been examined by scholars, the hilly, remote backward areas have not received the same attention. This paper estimates the household's total labour inputs and examines how the division of labour is organised in 120 marginal, small and other farm households located in 10 villages in Himachal Pradesh. The study finds that women's labour accounts for 61 per cent of the total farm work, their participation being greater in activities like animal husbandry than in crop production, and that there is some tendency towards sexual division of labour.

Changing Marriage Transactions and Rise of Demand System in Bangladesh

of Demand System in Bangladesh Rahauma Ahmed This study of muslims and christians in a Bangladesh village carried out in 1983-84 has the principal aim of obtaining an understanding of recent changes in marriage transactions and the nature of the new forms. The author offers, towards the end of the paper, 'tentative explanations regarding the growth of the demand system in Bangladesh, THIS paper focuses on marriage transactions and the changes taking place in these in present Bangladesh, in the earlier form of marriage the total expenses incurred by the groom's side (chele pakhya) outweighed those of the bridesside (meye pakhya). In the recent form, a noticeable change' has taken place, namely, the bride's side has to bear most of the expenses. A series of presentations are usually involved both before, at and after marriage. This giftgiving is increasingly becoming less and less voluntary; a new element has been added, that of 'demanding' a valued item, to be given by the bride's side to the groom as a condition for the marriage to take place. Items demanded may range from a job (in Dhaka or in the Middle East), watch: radio, land, cash, large number of groom's guests to be fed at the wedding feast, etc. This phenomenon is becoming near-universal in most Bangladeshi marriages.

Labour, Land and Rice Production-Women s Involvement in Three States

Women's Involvement in Three States K Saradamoni The underlying assumption in many studies which examine the situation of agricultural labour is that the male worker is the main breadwinner and the sole supporter of women and children. This study which examines the involvement of women

Gender Relations among Oraons in Bangladesh Continuity and Change

Continuity and Change Tone Bleie The Oraons living in scattered settlements in the westernmost districts of Bangladesh are one of the largest aboriginal groups in the region. In the last century they have become increasingly landless and have experienced a number of other socio-economic changes. This paper examines the interrelations between social processes that generate a continuity in the cultural ideas about gender and those that induce significant changes in other aspects of the female-male relationship. Changes in the rural production system are identified as interacting with gender organisation at household, kin-group and community level and the organisation of inter-ethnic relations. For example the mohila sikkar, the women's hunt, is an outcome of and response to the long-term changes in femalemale dynamics. Through the organisation of the event women have successfully managed to put under public discourse the legitimacy of the current transformations in gender relations.

BULGARIA- How Far Can the Centralised Model be Reformed

BULGARIA How Far Can the Centralised Model be Reformed? Ramnath Narayanswamy A PRELIMINARY investigation of centrally-planned economies reveals an economic system characterised by varying degrees of centralisation in which the process of economic reform has still to meaningfully transform the sources of inflexibility that have, institutionalised themselves over several decades of extensive growth. While the deficiencies of the system are several, ranging from over investment, inefficiency and wastage to bureaucratic mismanagement of resources, inflation and chronic shortage, most specialists agree that the major problem confronting the socialist economies of Eastern Europe lies in excessive centralism. It is therefore not surprising to find that the process of economic reform in Eastern Europe has either been directed towards perfecting the centralised model or moving away from the traditional model through a combination of nominal central control and the market.

Social Demography of Excess Female Mortality in India-New Directions

Social Demography of Excess Female Mortality in India New Directions Alice W Clark Discussions of sex differentials in mortality in South Asia have suffered from a lack of theoretical depth. On what basis do we decide that a certain mortality difference must be socially rather than purely biologically derived? The answer is usually to compare the observed mortality difference to the expected difference based on western experience, but this glosses over the need to examine South Asian environments and epidemiology for their own expected effects on sex differentials. In addition, what are the expected biological sex-differential outcomes of levels of mortality that are, by international standards, extremely high? Are age-specific patterns of mortality for both sexes different from those based on western models, and why? Is the relationship between these sexspecific patterns different than it is in western experience?

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