ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Changing Marriage Transactions and Rise of Demand System in Bangladesh

of Demand System in Bangladesh Rahauma Ahmed This study of muslims and christians in a Bangladesh village carried out in 1983-84 has the principal aim of obtaining an understanding of recent changes in marriage transactions and the nature of the new forms. The author offers, towards the end of the paper, 'tentative explanations regarding the growth of the demand system in Bangladesh, THIS paper focuses on marriage transactions and the changes taking place in these in present Bangladesh, in the earlier form of marriage the total expenses incurred by the groom's side (chele pakhya) outweighed those of the bridesside (meye pakhya). In the recent form, a noticeable change' has taken place, namely, the bride's side has to bear most of the expenses. A series of presentations are usually involved both before, at and after marriage. This giftgiving is increasingly becoming less and less voluntary; a new element has been added, that of 'demanding' a valued item, to be given by the bride's side to the groom as a condition for the marriage to take place. Items demanded may range from a job (in Dhaka or in the Middle East), watch: radio, land, cash, large number of groom's guests to be fed at the wedding feast, etc. This phenomenon is becoming near-universal in most Bangladeshi marriages.

Labour, Land and Rice Production-Women s Involvement in Three States

Women's Involvement in Three States K Saradamoni The underlying assumption in many studies which examine the situation of agricultural labour is that the male worker is the main breadwinner and the sole supporter of women and children. This study which examines the involvement of women

Gender Relations among Oraons in Bangladesh Continuity and Change

Continuity and Change Tone Bleie The Oraons living in scattered settlements in the westernmost districts of Bangladesh are one of the largest aboriginal groups in the region. In the last century they have become increasingly landless and have experienced a number of other socio-economic changes. This paper examines the interrelations between social processes that generate a continuity in the cultural ideas about gender and those that induce significant changes in other aspects of the female-male relationship. Changes in the rural production system are identified as interacting with gender organisation at household, kin-group and community level and the organisation of inter-ethnic relations. For example the mohila sikkar, the women's hunt, is an outcome of and response to the long-term changes in femalemale dynamics. Through the organisation of the event women have successfully managed to put under public discourse the legitimacy of the current transformations in gender relations.

BULGARIA- How Far Can the Centralised Model be Reformed

BULGARIA How Far Can the Centralised Model be Reformed? Ramnath Narayanswamy A PRELIMINARY investigation of centrally-planned economies reveals an economic system characterised by varying degrees of centralisation in which the process of economic reform has still to meaningfully transform the sources of inflexibility that have, institutionalised themselves over several decades of extensive growth. While the deficiencies of the system are several, ranging from over investment, inefficiency and wastage to bureaucratic mismanagement of resources, inflation and chronic shortage, most specialists agree that the major problem confronting the socialist economies of Eastern Europe lies in excessive centralism. It is therefore not surprising to find that the process of economic reform in Eastern Europe has either been directed towards perfecting the centralised model or moving away from the traditional model through a combination of nominal central control and the market.

Social Demography of Excess Female Mortality in India-New Directions

Social Demography of Excess Female Mortality in India New Directions Alice W Clark Discussions of sex differentials in mortality in South Asia have suffered from a lack of theoretical depth. On what basis do we decide that a certain mortality difference must be socially rather than purely biologically derived? The answer is usually to compare the observed mortality difference to the expected difference based on western experience, but this glosses over the need to examine South Asian environments and epidemiology for their own expected effects on sex differentials. In addition, what are the expected biological sex-differential outcomes of levels of mortality that are, by international standards, extremely high? Are age-specific patterns of mortality for both sexes different from those based on western models, and why? Is the relationship between these sexspecific patterns different than it is in western experience?

Structural Dimensions of Fodder Crisis-A Village Study in Karnataka

A Village Study in Karnataka A Damodaran This paper examines the structural dimensions of the fodder crisis taking the case of a village situated 26 kms away from Bangalore. In the first section the data base and methodology of the study is spelt out The second section describes the setting of the village in its ecological, social and economic dimensions in the traditional context from the viewpoint of fodder as a resource and proceeds to throw light on the traditional man-livestock relations on the villages of the district. The third section, depicting the changing scenario, is divided into three parts

Changing Village Structure-Impact of Rural Development Programmes

Changing Village Structure Impact of Rural Development Programmes V M Rao The economic investigations of rural programmes tend to be rather myopic remaining preoccupied with increases in employment, income, assets, etc. The purpose of this paper is to argue that looking at the rural programmes from the broader perspective of changing relative positions of rural strata would provide deeper understanding of rural change and, also, bring the empirical studies closer to the emerging theoretical issues in development economics.

Domestic Terms of Trade and Their Effect on Supply and Demand of Agricultural Sector

Domestic Terms of Trade and Their Effect on Supply and Demand of Agricultural Sector D S Tyagi Both the issues, viz, (i) whether the terms of trade have moved against or in favour of agricultural sector, and (ii) whether the changes in terms of trade have effected the rate of growth of Indian agriculture have been debated at length. This paper focuses on (a) how the terms of trade between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors have moved since early fifties, (b) what has been the impact of adverse or favourable terms of trade on the rate of growth of agricultural output in different periods, and (c) what has been the impact of movement of terms of trade on demand for non-agricultural commodities by the agricultural sector The analysis leads to the con- elusion that movement of net barter terms of trade can have significant impact on the pace of investment in the agricultural sector as well as on the rate of growth of agricultural output. However, the impact of terms of trade turning adverse to the agricultural sector on the growth of investment in agriculture and on its output can be neutralised, to a great extent, through technological developments.

Food vs Limbs-Pesticides and Physical Disability in India

Pesticides and Physical Disability in India Dinesh Mohan Policies in India regarding pesticide import, manufacture and use have shown a callous disregard for the health of the people. The article is a report of a study investigating the relationship between pesticides and physical disabilities in India.

Further Evidence on the Impact of Dairy Development Programme

Development Programme B Bowonder B Das Gupta Sanjeev Gupta S S R Prasad The impact of dairy development on nutrition and income has been a matter of great interest to policy-makers. At the same time it has been a subject of fierce controversy both in popular press as well as academic journals. The proponents of the dairy development programme feel that such. activity does indeed raise the level of income and hence, the nutrition of the rural poor As such the dairy development programme needs to be encouraged through positive government policy. In contrast its critics assert that spread of dairying in rural areas is leading to transfer of items of nutrition from the rural poor to the well-to-do in the urban areas. Even otherwise the contribution of dairy development programmes to incomes in rural areas is marginal.

Some Management Aspects of Indian Planning in Retrospect and Prospect

Some Management Aspects of Indian Planning in Retrospect and Prospect S IN Chary Vinod Vyasulu This paper is in two parts. Part I looks at the 'Retrospect' aspect of Indian planning, especially our experience in the implementation of projects under the plans and seeks to find a partial explanation here for the adverse capital-output ratio reported by several scholars.

Let the Workers Own and Manage

V M Dandekar It will be wrong to reject employee stock ownership simply because the idea has come from the governments and spokesmen of liberal capitalism and because, if accepted, it may make it easier for capitalism to manage its crises better and survive. The relevant question to ask is whether if capitalism transforms itself and survives in a new form in which the means of production are owned by the workers, will it be better or worse for labour than if capitalism continues in its present antagonistic form.

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