ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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City Lives Workers Housing and Rent in Bombay, 1911-47

in Bombay, 1911-47 Radha Kumar By the first decade of this century Bombay's working class population was already living in overcrowded ill- ventilated chawls with poor sanitation and water supply. In the following three decades, the situation worsened. Between 1921 and 1931 working class housing increased by less than five per cent aggravating the situation. The chawls, some owned by the government, others by the mills and nearly half of them belonging to private landlords, were mostly rickety structures which often collapsed, injuring and killing the residents. Quarrels at the water tap leading to violence and murders was a feature of urban working class lives, as were such practices of landlords as rack renting, pagdi, the use of musclemen, etc. In 1935 the Congress Socialist Party helped to form the first working class tenants' union which took up various issues such as rent assessment standards, rent waivers during periods of high unemployment and even demanded free housing for the working class. Though the union functioned until 1945, it was not successful in mobilising large numbers.

Poverty among Identified Weaker Sections in Rajasthan

The structure and distribution of poverty groups measured in terms of size of landholding, value of assets, caste or unemployment, is not uniform throughout the country. In Rajasthan which by 1968 had become one of highest poverty states the data show some distinct features. This paper examines the position of the generally identified rural poverty groups in the state in terms of the distribution of consumption expenditure, income, assets and liabilities as well as food consumption patterns for both all-rural population and the weaker sections. What emerges is that the consumption levels of a significant number of labour households are higher than those of other sections of the population; that rural labour households are not necessarily the poorer sections; and that in fact, small cultivators turn out to be the worst sufferers.

Class Character of Rural Energy Crisis- Case of Karnataka

This paper proposes and develops a new method of analysis of the ruling energy crisis in India, and applies it to the state of Karnataka. It argues that in the context of rural India, a proper understanding of the production, consumption and reproduction of energy requires the extension of the concept of energy beyond fuels to include food, fodder and fertiliser. Using labour, land, physical and monetary assets, indebtedness and caste as the principal tools of analysis, and on the basis of the field surveys conducted by the authors in 1986, this theoretical and empirical study examines how the energy situation

Agricultural Growth, Prices and Rural Poverty-On Dharm Narain s Regression Analysis

On Dharm Narain's Regression Analysis N Krishnaji This note contributes to the discussion on Dharm Narain's unfinished work on the trends in rural poverty which has remained somewhat inconclusive. It examines the statistical artifacts underlying Dharm Narain's regression fits and argues that the empirical relationships are to a large extent implicit in the manner in which poverty estimates are derived, and caused by the highly correlated trends in the different price indices used in defining the variables.

Why Do Some Co-operatives Work But Not Others- A Comparative Analysis of Sugar Co-operatives in India

The co-operative sugar factories of western India (in Maharashtra state) are remarkably successful examples of local development initiative. This paper presents a comparative sociological analysis of these co-operatives in order to pinpoint the organisational factors which are crucial for their success. Comparative analysis of privately- owned sugar factories in India reveals a basic weakness in the cane supply relationship between the private factories and the surgarcane growers

UNITED KINGDOM- Where Now for Labour

 UNITED KINGDOM Where Now for Labour? Michael Jacobs MARGARET THATCHER'S crushing victory in the general election secures her place in history as the first prime minister this century to win three consecutive terms of office. With an overall majority in the new parliament of 101 seats, the Tories will continue with the radical policies of their first eight years. The next stages promised in the Thatcher Revolution' include the wholesale selling-off of council houses to private property companies, the privatisation of the last remaining public utilities, including the water authorities and the electricity board, further reductions in direct taxation, and the gradual dismantling of the-comprehensive state education system in favour of grant- aided, fee-paying and selective schools. Margaret Thatcher announced no measures to reduce unemployment from its current 3.2m (14 per cent).

Public Accountability and Audit in India

Central to any study of accountability in government is the role of government audit, which has a vital role in helping the executive and the legislature to ensure that public money is spent properly and to assure the public that it gets value for its money The Indian constitution has conferred complete independence and extensive powers on the auditor general to enable him to discharge his functions unhindered by anyone.

Involvement of Business Houses in Rural Development-A Case Study

Indian business houses began to diversify into agri-business in the mid-sixties, often in collaboration with multinationals. However, as the purchasing power of the Indian farmer is limited, except for a small section in the green revolution areas, the major buyer the business houses have sought is the government which has tried to modernise agriculture by providing a variety of subsidies. These subsidies have progressively increased and are heaviest in areas designated as 'tribal', 'backward

Financial Innovations and Credit Market Evolution

Financial innovations reduce transaction costs and risk and so bring about a widening and deepening of capital markets and contribute to acceleration of economic development through the favourable impact on saving, investment and output. This paper examines the relationship between finance and development and the nature and characteristics of financial innovations. The author discusses the role of policy intervention in quickening the pace of financial development. A case study of an innovative bank is used to illustrate innovations essential for financing small farm and non-farm enterprises and mobilising resources from middle and tow income groups in developing countries.

Sengupta Report on Public Enterprises-Eloquent Fuzziness at Its Best

A number of major policy initiatives toward public enterprises are being pushed vigorously by the government. Phrases like "MOUs" ''holding companies" and "privatisation" have become a part of the current economic jargon. A closer examination reveals that they have spawned out of a common source

Multinationals and Development-Elitist Perspectives

Oil and Other Multinationals in India by M S Patwardhan, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, p 140, Price Rs 150 IN recent years the door has been opened wide for largescale inflow of foreign capital into this country. Liberalisation of imports of foreign private capital and of 'high technology' has become the craze. M S Patwardhan's book "Oil and Multinationals in India" is in accord with this policy. The author was the first and the last Indian chief executive of the erstwhile Burmah Shell group of companies in India and is currently the managing director of NOCIL, a joint venture of the Royal Dutch Shell and the Mafatlals.

Women s Contribution to Agricultural Economy in Hill Regions of North-West India

Hill Regions of North-West India J P Bhati D V Singh While the conditions of women in the plains have been examined by scholars, the hilly, remote backward areas have not received the same attention. This paper estimates the household's total labour inputs and examines how the division of labour is organised in 120 marginal, small and other farm households located in 10 villages in Himachal Pradesh. The study finds that women's labour accounts for 61 per cent of the total farm work, their participation being greater in activities like animal husbandry than in crop production, and that there is some tendency towards sexual division of labour.

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