ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Effective Incentives and Subsidies for Cotton Cultivators in India

Cotton Cultivators in India Ashok Gulati This paper attempts to quantify the degree of distortions in the trade pricing policies with regard to Indian seed-cotton (kapas) during the 1980s. The region and variety-specific incentive structure of cotton is estimated by adopting a standard methodology Four major varieties of cotton dominant in the regions of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh are covered. Broadly the results do not support a policy of protection for cotton cultivators in India.

Commodity and Credit in Upland Maharashtra, 1800-1950

Maharashtra, 1800-1950 Sumit Guha A particular structure of commodity production arose as a consequence of tax-demands in late eighteenth century Maharashtra and generated a need for credit without which production and, consequently, both the productive and the unproductive classes would suffer. A flow of credit did result as a result. The real change came when another market came into operation; that in land. Now an additional, and tangible, security was available, and the moneylender could reduce his costs and extend his operations by relying on it.

Social and Economic Aspects of Attached Labourers in Kuttanad Agriculture

Labourers in Kuttanad Agriculture Alex George The highly oppressive feudal characteristics of the system of attached labour prevailed in Kuttanad until 1943. These labourers mostly belonged to the pulaya and the paraya castes who became apparently free' after the abolition of slavery in 1855. The prevalence of this system even during the early period of capitalist investment in agriculture can be explained by several factors not least of which is the characteristic form of highly labour intensive cultivation in the region known as punja cultivation and the fact that pulayas and the parayas were alone engaged in the hardest and the dirtiest of tasks involved. So firm was the grip of this feudal system that the attached labourers were slow to unionise. However, it was the labour movement which contributed significantly to the transition from attached labour to free labour THE Thiruvithamkoor Karshaka Thozhilali Union (TKTU) the first agricultural labour union in Kuttanad and of Kerala was formed in 1941,1 under the initiative of the leaders and cadres of the organised working class of the coir industry of the nearby Alleppey town. But during the formative stage of TKTU the pulayas and parayas2 of Kuttanad who were under the feudal system of attached labour, kept aloof from its activities.3 This was due to the extreme grip of the feudal system of attached labour over them.4 This system of attached labour was made use of by the farmers of Kuttanad region who engaged in capitalist investment in paddy cultivation.5 Tendencies of capitalist investment in paddy cultivation in the region can be traced as far back as the latter half of 1880s.6 Since the condition of the pulayas and parayas as attached labourers, had its implication for their unionisation, we set apart a section each of this paper for the analysis of: (i) Transition from slavery to attached ' labour in Kuttanad; (ii) The feudal character of the attached " . labour system, and (iii) The prevalence of the attached labour system under capitalist investment in agriculture.

IRDP and Rural Diversification-A Study in Karnataka

A Study in Karnataka V M Rao S Erappa This study, based on data collected from IRDP beneficiaries in Karnataka supplemented with data from the government records on the anti-poverty programmes, finds that (a) The anti-poverty programmes remain preoccupied with the objective of providing relief rather than making the poor viable and development-oriented. More specifically, IRDP remains weak as thrust for widening the base of rural economy through substantial addition of non-agricultural activities.

Measurement of Technological Changes in Indian Economy, 1968-69 to 1979-80

This paper discusses the concept technological change and attempts to measure such change in the Indian economy over the period 1968-69 to 1979-80 through an input-output approach. The extent of changes in input- output coefficients (technical coefficients) are quantified and an attempt is made to segregate change in output due to changes in final demand from that due to changes in technology.

The Plains Man s Burden

The question of tribal separatism is increasingly coming to the fore. Sometimes it is raised with a profound sense of alarm as if there were a revolt and the army ought to be marched in to crush it; at other times it is raised with voyeuristic amusement at the tribals

Management Information System for Biogas Development

This paper develops a Management Information System (MIS) for the national programme on biogas development It first identifies the problems of the existing information system in utilising the data for decision making. Subsequently, the tasks that are related to planning, implementation and control of the bio-gas programme at the district level are enumerated and the problems anticipated in the execution of the programme are identified. A graphic model of a MIS is then developed and its use as a tool in problem solving is illustrated.

India s Trade with the Emirates

of pragmatism were not proving very successful, yet they continued to be followed. But with the goal becoming more and more distant, the tribes also showed tendencies of associating the other faiths with superiority. The superior people must be having superior religions, a much surer way to the supreme being and happiness. Birsa represented this tendency of fighting the stronger cultures with their own weapons. There were elements from christian and hindu sects in his faith. His laws were: Do not worship spirits or offer them sacrifices; do not eat non-vegetarian or impure food or drink liquor; observe Thursday as weekly holiday, devoting it to worship; wear the sacred thread; take your meal only after bathing, and so on. Those who followed Birsa accepted all these conditions, for in him they saw the greatest promise ever of return to the age of the kin-confederations.

Acquisition and Development of Technology-Some Issues

In many sectors of industry, including those involving sophisticated technology, we now know what it takes to bring about successful generation and commercialisation of indigenously developed technology There is, in other words, a technology of technology transfer, calling for specialised analytical, managerial, and behavioural skills on the part of planners and policy makers and technology generators and utilisers.

OD, Health Care and, Social Change

The health care system in India needs to become more accessible and affordable to the poor and the unreached. This process requires prioritising plans, funds, activities, etc, in accordance with the needs of the health of the poor and the marginalised. Organisation Development (OD), it is argued here, is a useful tool for this purpose, especially as OD literature has tended to focus on operationalisation of concepts like collaboration, confrontation, authenticity, trust, support and openness.

Making of a Participative Forum BHEL Experience

This paper recounts the experience of the Joint Committee, the apex, participative union-management forum of the public sector organisation, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. The data, based on the minutes of the Joint Committee meetings, covering the period from the setting up of the forum in 1973 through to mid-1982. The paper tracer how in a multiple union situation, the forum sought to evolve commonly acceptable norms for deter- mining union representation to the forum, and then went on to reconstitute itself through secret ballot Through the process of joint decision-making, the apex body was able to make both management and unions accountable to the forum, and acquire directive authority as well as participate in rule-making for the organisation. On the basis of this experience, the paper concludes by questioning the validity of certain commonly held assumptions about workers' participation in management, in the Indian context.

Crisis of Public Administration as a Discipline in India

Reviewing the current status of the public administration discipline in the Indian universities, this paper raises questions about the relevance of so-called theories and approaches in public administration, developed in an alien context, to Indian realities. It is argued that the management science orientation and the practical concerns of the discipline have taken it away from its broader social science moorings. A meaningful discipline of public administration in India has to reckon with the undifferentiated nature of administration and politics and the deep involvement of the administration in the social structure and processes. The theories of the state, especially the theoretical developments in the conceptualisation of the 'third world' state, need to be related to the structure and operation of public organisations. Public administration as a subject of study has thus to be located within a broader field of political theory. A discipline that avoids analysing the role of administration in sustaining a structure of domination, repression and injustice, is not a genuine social science but a courtier subject.


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