ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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India s Trade with the Emirates

of pragmatism were not proving very successful, yet they continued to be followed. But with the goal becoming more and more distant, the tribes also showed tendencies of associating the other faiths with superiority. The superior people must be having superior religions, a much surer way to the supreme being and happiness. Birsa represented this tendency of fighting the stronger cultures with their own weapons. There were elements from christian and hindu sects in his faith. His laws were: Do not worship spirits or offer them sacrifices; do not eat non-vegetarian or impure food or drink liquor; observe Thursday as weekly holiday, devoting it to worship; wear the sacred thread; take your meal only after bathing, and so on. Those who followed Birsa accepted all these conditions, for in him they saw the greatest promise ever of return to the age of the kin-confederations.

Govardhanram s Women

Sonal Shukla The works of Govardhanram Tripathi had a significant impact on the expanding middle class nineteenth and early twentieth century Gujarat. His revivalist ideas and his protests against the arrogant cultural invasion of the colonial masters as projected in his writings etched out the ideals for the newly educated young man and for his wife. Govardhanram's central theme was the conflicts faced by a young male graduate. The ideal wife whether she belonged to a wealthy influential family or hailed from a traditional background and was uneducated, was one who would manage the house skilfully, and even in adversity remain witty and cheerful. It is in order to fulfil this role that a girl was to be educated. These models have remained popular to this day and every woman in the middle class is expected to be something of Govardhanram's heroines.

State and Subordination of Women

Padmini Swaminathan This paper examines the way in which the state contributes to women's subordination. The review of the nature of policies affecting various aspects of women's lives lays bare the mechanism by which policies reproduce sexual divisions, the way in which the issue of equality for women has been defined by policy-makers and the effect of measures designed to achieve greater equality between the sexes.

Impact of Male Migration on Rural Females

Male out-migration from the rural poor over extended periods greatly increases women's work burdens and compounds their difficulties of basic survival. The additional source of income through remittances does not substantially change the economic status of family nor helps it come out of its subsistence level A little more food and a few basic needs to reduce their poverty is all they get in return for prolonged displacement of family life, emotional deprivation and insecure future, except for a possible bridge for their children to go to the big city The women in these de facto female-headed households project themselves as the 'behind-the-scene'decisionmakers, while trying to live according to the expectations of the patriarchal ideology, conferring the role of major decision-maker on the absentee husband. Thus male migration from the poor peasant or landless households by itself neither leads to greater autonomy for women nor pulls the family out of its poverty THE sixtees saw a breakthrough in agriculture in most of south and south-east Asia, thanks to the discovery of high yielding seed varieties and their commercial application. But this technological phenomenon has wider social implications. The disquieting feature of the modernisation process is its role in accentuating inequalities [Tinker, 1976a; Mazumdar, 1979; Boserup, 1970]. Developing societies achieved a fair amount of success in technological advancement, but because of neglect to secure social justice by effectively implementing institutional measures for the equalisation of opportunities to all sections of the society, development with its accompanying rapid social change has in fact been instrumental in widening the gap between the rich and the poor. Furthermore, when development introduces or increases inequality within rural societies, women

Coping with Male Migration

Leela Gulati Based on a study of thirty-seven households from villages on the outskirts of Trivandrum from which migrant workers have gone to the Middle East, this paper assesses the socio-economic impact of male migration on those members of the households, especially women, who are left behind.

Growth and Instability in Foodgrains Production-An Inter-State Analysis

Production An Inter-State Analysis S Mahendradev Inter-state analysis of foodgrain production taking into account fluctuations weather-adjusted growth rates, the relationship between growth and instability is of importance for understanding the nature of food security at the regional level. This paper, begins with an examination of unadjusted and weather-adjusted growth rates in foodgrains production, reviews trends in instability using a moving period approach and analyses the factors influencing interstate disparities in growth and instability and the consequences of these differences on rural poverty Introduction THIS paper which deals with an inter-state time series analysis of foodgrains production for the period 1960-61 through 1984-85, examines a) Unadjusted and weather adjusted growth rates, b) Trends in instability; c) Relationship between growth and instability The following issues have prompted us to undertake the present study It is well known that weather, particularly rainfall, plays an important role in Indian agriculture since around 70 per cent of the cultivated area is dependent on rainfall and the dry land technology which is being developed in the research stations is yet to reach the fields on any significant scale However, many research studies on Indian agriculture have ignored the weather factor while estimating growth rates in crop production Although some studies have examined the relationship between rainfall and crop production at the all India level, no such analysis has been made at the regional level ' I he present study estimates, apart from the usual unadjusted trend growth rates, weather-adjusted trend growth rates for foodgrains production for each of the 17 major states.

Influence of Socio-Economic Status on Contractual Terms of Tenancy-A Study in Two Delta Villages of Andhra Pradesh

Contractual Terms of Tenancy A Study in Two Delta Villages of Andhra Pradesh C S Murty The hypothesis that the terms and conditions governing the lease agreements are shaped by the bargaining strength of a tenant as reflected by his socio-economic standing, more specially by the relative bargaining power of a lessor- lessee, is statistically tested based on empirical evidence obtained on a census basis from the tenants of two delta villages.

How Stable Is Indian Irrigated Agriculture

B D Dhawan Instability of irrigated farming during the period 1970-71 to 1983-84 is here assessed and compared with the corresponding instability in rainfed farming. That irrigation lowers farm instability is found in nine out of eleven states. For alt the eleven states taken together, the coefficient of variation of detrended output is 5 A per cent for the irrigated segment as against 11.4 per cent for the unirrigated segment Quite expectedly, the stability gain in yield due to irrigation is much more than the corresponding stability gain in crop area. It is in the two high rainfall states of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh that irrigation fails to show any moderating influence on agricultural instability.

Concurrent Evaluation of IRDP-Selected Aspects for Administrative Follow-up

Selected Aspects for Administrative Follow-up A P Saxena This paper discusses some aspects of a concurrent evaluation of the Integrated Rural Development Programme carried out by the Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Agriculture. Only those aspects with an administrative focus and content have been chosen for discussion. These are selection of beneficiaries, delays in providing actual assistance, linkages with other programmes, after care support and training of beneficiaries. The existing structure and processes cannot perform their role of helping the poor and the resulting procedures are in need of reform.

Sino-Soviet Boundary Agreement-Prelude to Sino-Indian Settlement

The parallels between the Sino-Soviet and the Sino-Indian boundary disputes are very close. Moscow and New Delhi both attempted to impose their version of the boundary on their neighbour, China. In both cases the attempt to impose settlement was pushed as far as armed conflict. Now Moscow under Gorbachev has backed away from confrontation and reversed policy. The lesson for India is clear.

Edible Oilseeds-Growth and Area Responses

Growth and Area Responses K N Ninan India enjoys the distinction of having the largest cultivated area under oilseeds in the world. Yet the consumption levels of a crucial nutrient like oils and fats in the country are not only below the world average but also far below the minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the ICMR. The domestic demand for vegetable oils and fats has been rising at a very fast pace whereas domestic output has lagged far behind the growth in demand, forcing the government to resort to large-scale imports of edible oils to bridge this shortfall. Making the country self-sufficient in its edible oil requirements has therefore been accorded priority in our development plans.

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