ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Outside the Norms

A Hindu monastic order has the structure of a genealogical tree. This extremely loose structure allows a considerable freedom to spiritual masters and it explains to some extent how female ascetics have finally found their way into most of the monastic orders, even those traditionally closed to them. But to be admitted into a lineage does not allow one to transmit its religious tradition, that is to initiate and become a guru. It is only in some very rare cases that there is an evidence of self-sustained series of women ascetics. More often, female ascetics have to survive within the framework of systems that are essentially male-oriented and have been designed and refined by males for other males.

Technological and Institutional Alternatives-in Asian Rice Irrigation

in Asian Rice Irrigation James K Boyce Irrigation plays a central role in increasing land productivity in Asian rice agriculture, but the pace and character of irrigation development in the region have varied greatly. This essay reviews five sets of determinants of these variations: population pressure, geography, agrarian structure, cultural factors, and the role of the state.

Development and Controversy-National Dairy Development Board

National Dairy Development Board B S Baviskar Shanti George This paper analyses how the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), which designs and implements Operation Flood, reacted to the controversy it aroused. The focus is on aspects of the controversy that are of developmental interest IF developmental programmes are intended to renew and invigorate the body politic, controversy can play the role of adrenalin by stimulating, speeding up and intensifying these processes.

Ground Water Markets and Small Farmer-Development

Development Tushaar Shah K Vengama Raju Localised, fragmented, village based ground water markets, the off-shoot or wide spread diffusion of modern water extraction technology in India, are far more pervasive and important than most researchers and policy makers imagine. Due to their responsiveness to certain public policy interventions, such water markets have the potential to become powerful instruments for efficient and equitable ground water development This paper presents an argument about how the working of such markets could be influenced and examines empirical evidence in two markedly similar villages selected from the west Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and the Kheda district of Gujarat. The paper highlights the differential impact of public policies followed by the two states on the terms of business; and the output and livelihood intensities of ground water markets of these two villages.

Morphology of Grazing and Its Crisis in Sedentary Communities

Sedentary Communities A Damodaran This paper attempts an analysis of the specificity of the grazing crisis faced by sedentary village communities possessing livestock, a crisis which has two facets, viz, deteriorating common village pastures and other grasslands and abject famishment of livestock. The mode of analysis adopted is to first of all examine the morphology or 'natural' essence of grazing in its spatio-temporality and then proceed to examine why the natural essence is not tapped in sedentary grazing due to the social factors governing the spatio-temporality of livestock in these communities.

Current Agrarian Scene Policy Alternatives

C H Hanumantha Rao The present agricultural strategy has enabled us to accumulate stocks of foodgrains sufficient to meet the internal demand without recourse to imports, but this 'self-sufficiency' has been achieved at the cost of other equally important objectives of agricultural development, viz, imparting stability to output growth, eradication of rural poverty and reduction in regional disparities.

Rural Marketing Some Conceptual Issues

Mithileshwar Jha This paper makes an attempt at understanding the concept of rural marketing through conceptualisation based on literature review and some experimential learning. It aims to (i) develop a framework for understanding rural marketing; (ii) explore the state of the art based on the framework developed; (iii) examine the contributions from other disciplines (economics, sociology, anthropology, etc); (iv) review the literature on the rural situation; and (v) explore future concerns of rural marketing.

Marketing Management

S L Rao devoted a whole issue to Marketing Management in 1973 (Review of Management, August 25). The industrial climate in India has changed radically since then. There is a much larger base of production of consumer and industrial goods. There is a much larger middle class. The availability of media for advertising, and especially, television, has vastly improved in reach. But the most important change is that Indian industry is facing competition. In 1973, some of the consumer products industries had competitions and a total availability of production in excess of demand, giving the consumer a choice of brands. Even in those industries the competition was perhaps not in the same class as in the industrialised countries. Manufacturers were not able to go all out in improving products to meet rising consumer expectations because of restrictions in imports of materials, machinery and know-how, and their own unwillingness to invest in research and development. In the case of industrial products and consume! durables the position was that a licence to produce almost guaranteed a market for the production. Licensing was related to govern ment forecasts of market demand growth, which were many times wrong and not all licences got converted into production, or not in time.

Market Research for Existing and-New Products

New Products Mahesh Srivastava The area of exclusive, mostly ad hoc market research studies involves a variety of marketing management problems requiring varied research approaches. Some of the research concepts related to experience and conditions in India are discussed in this paper THERE would be little research without the target market's co-operation, and no commercial research without a client commissioning it. Marketing researchers have secured both and have been steadily expanding their activities afi&techniques in recent years.

Consumer Behaviour and Marketing-Towards an Indian Approach

Towards an Indian Approach? S Ramachander What is different about consumer behaviour in India? Can the research findings of western academics or marketing professionals be translated across cultural borders? The role of the housewife in decision making is clearly different even within India, across ethnic groups and regions. Any wrong assumption can easily lead to erroneous conclusions. The author raises some relevant issues that would crop up in developing a theory of consumer behaviour in an Indian context INTRODUCTON THE relevance of consumer behaviour to the profession of marketing is a fundamental one. If marketing concerns itself with "consumer statisfaction at a profit" then obviously the underlying principles as well as the overt symptoms of the consumer choice process are of vital concern to the marketing man

WEST BENGAL LANDSCAPES

Panchayat at Work Arun Ghosh The development of communications and the spread of education have played a crucial role in making the panchayati raj a reality in some districts of West Bengal. Even while worrying about decentralised planning it is these prerequisites to the process of involving people in development activities which must be created.

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