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The Official Discourse Around PITA

The Official Discourse Around PITA Gopika Solanki Gitanjali Gangoli Official discourse on prostitution legislative and legal debates and judicial attitudes reveals a disturbing ambivalence towards the practitioners and the profession. Not surprisingly, laws on prostitution are formulated to neither give justice to prostitutes nor eradicate prostitution. Moreover, the ambivalence often results in the prostitutes, already oppressed and abused at various levels of society, being further subjected to demeaning treatment at the hands of the state aonaratus.

Public Policy and the Financial System-A Dilemma of Two Cultures

Public Policy and the Financial System A Dilemma of Two Cultures N A Mujumdar The financial sector reforms introduced as part of economic liberalisation have done the economy more harm than good. Any reforms that we introduce must he judged by the test of their relevance to the specific Indian socio-economic milieu, and the 1991-96 reforms fail this test. The initiatives taken by the United Front government appear to appreciate this point.

The European Union-A Model for Regional Co-operation in South Asia

The European Union A Model for Regional Co-operation in South Asia? Jakob Rosel The gradual evolution of the European Union has coalesced into a myth where steadfastness, singularity of purpose and humility triumph against adversity. Against this teleological model this article argues that contingent historical circumstances played important part in shaping the history of the EU. Though there are lessons to be learned from European integration, it will be naive to consider it as a model for south Asia, given the economic and demographic discrepancies within the latter.

Redefining Development-An Alternative Paradigm

Redefining Development An Alternative Paradigm Bagaram Tulpule THE only model of development placed before us today is the one represented by what are called the 'developed' or industrialised countries. The rest of the countries in the world in different stages of underdevelopment are straining to develop according to the same model, with varying degrees of success. A few have reached the threshold and are about to enter the developed countries1 club. At the other extreme, large parts of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as large segments of the populations within many countries at intermediate stages arc altogether excluded from this process of development.

Women and Politics Beyond Quotas

Given that the marginalisation of women is integrally linked to the marginalisation of all decent people from our party politics, we need wide-spectrum electoral reforms that will curb the role of muscle and money power in politics and democratise decision-making in the political parties and a sensible proportional representation system which facilitates representation of various marginalised groups without mechanical reservation quotas.

Pakistan Religion, Politics and Society

Pakistan: Religion, Politics and Society Asghar Ali Engineer WAS Pakistan created for Islam or for Muslims, is an important question. There is divided opinion on this. Some ideologues of Pakistan would like to maintain that Pakistan was primarily created for establishing an Islamic state in the Indian sub-continent. Others, who view things more analytically than ideologically, would seriously doubt this proposition. They would rather uphold the view that Pakistan was created to serve the interests of a section of Muslims in pre-independent India. The fact that Maulana Maududi, the founder of the Jamat-e-lslami, kept away from the Pakistan movement, goes to show that. The Maulana was an ideologue of an Islamic state. He had no interest in a secular Pakistan of Jinnah's dream. The Maulana's lack of interest in the Pakistan movement was on account of Jinnah's lack of interest in an Islamic state. Jinnah's main fight was for proper share in power for Muslims and he propounded the theory of two nations only when the Congress slighted him after the 1937 elections in the United Province (UP) and did not take the two Mislim League ministers in the UP cabinet, as informally agreed upon by the Congress.

Understanding Deve Gowda

Understanding Deve Gowda James Manor Deve Gowda's past may turn out to be a poor guide to his premiership, but this account of a number of events, tendencies and recurring themes in his career may offer a somewhat clearer notion of what India can expect of the man from Hardanahalli.

Neo-Liberalism and Daily Life

Neo-Liberalism and Daily Life James Petras Steve Vieux Data on the effects of unemployment, underemployment and low-paid employment in the US reveal a strong tendency for the downwardly mobile to direct their anger inward, to become depressed, hostile towards their family and to withdraw from neighbours, friends and former colleagues. This behaviour is aided by the major political parties, the mass media and academic publicists who point to the inevitability of 'globalisation', the virtues of 'market competitiveness and need' for labour flexibility which presents the problem of the individual victim as the product of impersotuil forces beyond her/his control.

Shrinking Democracy and Expanding Trade-New Shape of the Imperial State

Shrinking Democracy and Expanding Trade New Shape of the Imperial State James Petras Steve Vieux The new configuration of state power by neoliberalism depends upon the destruction of the chief 'countervailing powers' of the post-war boom years. The resulting organisational vacuum at the grass roots is the prime structural precondition for the growth of the ultra right. Unions, civil rights organisations and public interest groups have been the primary victims of this collapse of pluralism. It is a mistake for the Left to await salvation from the mechanical swing of the political pendulum or an economic crisis.

Political Situation in Kashmir-Duped by Media and Government

Political Situation in Kashmir Duped by Media and Government Gautam Navlakha Rita Manchanda Tapan K Bose While elections in the Kashmir valley were held in the massive presence of Indian army and threats of renegade militants, across the border, parties refusing to owe allegiance to Pakistan were disqualified from contesting the elections in Azad Kashmir. In both countries the media has become an accomplice of the respective governments in misinforming people.

Demographic Outcomes, Economic Development and Womens Agency

Demographic Outcomes, Economic Development and Women's Agency INDIA is a country of striking demographic diversity. Even broad comparisons between different states within the country bring out enormous variations in basic demographic indicators. At one end of the scale, Kerala has demographic features that are more typical of a middle-income country than of a poor developing economy, including a life expectancy at birth of 72 years, an infant mortality of only 17 per 1,000 live births, a total fertility rate below the replacement level (1.8 in 1991), and a female- male ratio well above unity (1.04 in 1991). At the other end, the large north Indian states find themselves in the same league as the least developed countries of the world in terms of the same indicators. In Uttar Pradesh, for instance, the infant mortality rate is six times as high as in Kerala, the total fertility rate is as high as 5.1, and the female-male ratio (879 in 1991) is lower than that of any country in the world.1 India is also a country of rapid demographic change. As in many other developing countries, mortality rates in fndia have significantly declined in recent decades, e g, the infant mortality rate has been reduced by about 50 per cent since 1961. The same period has seen a sustained decline in fertility, particularly in the south Indian states (in Tamil Nadu, for instance, the total fertility rate declined from 3.5 to 2.2 during the 1980s). There have also been significant changes in the relative survival chances of men and women.2 Apart from being of much interest in themselves, these inter-regional and intertemporal variations provide useful opportunities to study the determinants of demographic outcomes in India. This paper is an attempt to examine some of the relevant relationships based on a cross-section analysis of district-level data for 1981. A more detailed presentation and discussion of this analysis can be found in Guio (1994) and Murthi, Guio and Dreze (1995).' The reference year for this analysis is 1981. For that year, a fair amount of district- level information is available from the 1981 Census and related sources. Table 1 a presents a list of the variables used along with their definitions. The relevant information is available for 296 districts, all located in 14 of India's 15 largest states (these 14 states had a total of 326 districts in 1981, and accounted for 94 per cent of the total population of India). The sample averages of the variables used in the analysis are presentedinTablela,whilethestateaverages are in Table lb.

Sahmat and Politics of Cultural Intervention

Sahmat and Politics of Cultural Intervention Sudhanva Deshpande IN November 1988, the working class of Delhi went on a successful seven-day strike under the leadership of the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU). the trade union front of CPI(M), demanding an improvement in their living and working conditions. This has been, to date, the longest such action in the working class movement in Delhi. A day before the strike began, several hundred artists and intellectuals marched to Boat Club in support of the forthcoming strike, and participated in a cultural sit-in. The chief mobiliser of this event was Safdar Hashmi, playwright, actor, director, lyricist, designer, filmmaker, and the best-known street theatre person in India. A month later, he was killed for daring to align his art with the cause of the working class.

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