ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Perspectives

Sri Lanka faces an uncertain path to obtaining bailout funding from the International Monetary Fund, while the existing terms of the agreement itself will exacerbate the ongoing economic crisis. Moreover, Sri Lanka’s difficulty in securing the consent of bilateral and private creditors amid great power rivalry reflects the unravelling of the global order. Is there an alternative to austerity in this conjuncture, including possibilities for self-sufficiency?

Recognising an increasing interface of the domestic labour—informal as well as unorganised—with the global production networks, this article engages with two specific research concerns. One is the relevance of traditional trade unions, and the other is the role of the new, even as both labour standards and rights confront the challenges of capital-favouring new labour legislations. The systemic exclusion of the lower-tier workers, despite their globality, reinforces and justifies informality and precarity in the labour process.

According to a study by Lucas Chancel and Thomas Piketty (2017), the average annual real per adult income growth in India accelerated from 1.7% during 1951–80 to 3.3% during 1980–2015. However, for the bottom 50% income group, it decelerated from 2.2% to 1.9% over the same period, despite acceleration from 1.2% to 5.1% for the top 10% income group and from 0.2% to 6.6% for the top 1% income group. These growing income inequalities in India are part of a larger set of rising income inequalities in several parts of the world; according to the World Social Report 2020 by the United Nations (2020), two-thirds of the world’s population today lives in countries where income inequality has grown. Moreover, “the ratio between the incomes of the richest and the poorest 10% of global population is 25% larger than it would be in a world without global warming,” as, among other factors, “at similar levels of exposure, people in poverty are more susceptible to damage from climate change than those who are better off” (United Nations 2020: 7).

How should we distribute land areas between amenities— schools, hospitals, parks—and private plots for homes and jobs? What is the ideal proportion for each? We need to do this for two different situations, greenfield sites and brownfield sites. In greenfield sites, where we start with vacant land, we have considerable freedom to choose our proportions, and the ideal we have selected will be a very useful guide for new area planning. Even for brownfield sites, a notion of what would be ideal proportions for land distribution between amenities and buildable plots would be a useful guide. The article attempts to extract guiding principles and concludes with a detailed study of the redevelopment of BDD Chawls at Worli, Mumbai.

Within regular protected employment, there can be a greater degree of regularity and deeper protection than the minimum definition offers. This very idea is explored to take a view on the evolution of internal structure of this employment form.

In light of the concern of whether pedagogy and quality of education are treated symbiotically or not, the intent behind the article is twofold: fi rst, it will focus on how the term “quality education” and “quality of education” were taken up at the national level and within international domains, and what were their contents and intricacies, keeping in mind the differences between the two concepts; second, it will directly delve into the question of: Have pedagogy-related variables been considered for measurement? This query will be contextualised with reference to a list of fi ve nationwide metrics or surveys in India and their subjective ideas of the principal attributes of quality education.

The justifi cation for a slew of preferential policies aimed at Brahmins in three southern states of India are empirically examined. The results reveal that Brahmins in these three states are at the top of various human capital measures, various standard of living indicators, and have better political and social networks compared to all other social groups. Thus, these preferential policies retrench the existing caste inequalities instead of eliminating them.

In an attempt to incorporate the doctrine of universalisation of social security, the gig workers are brought into the ambit of the labour laws for the first time, with the provision of some welfare measures under the Code on Social Security, 2020. The three other codes are silent on the policies towards gig workers. While the codes are yet to be implemented, there are many questions pertaining to the clarity of the codes and how to implement them effectively to meet the intended objectives.

To address hunger, the Government of Delhi had issued temporary ration e-coupons in the first COVID-19 lockdowns of 2020. This article uses a data set of nearly 17 lakh households that applied for e-coupons to measure and spatialise food insecurity in the city. It does so to measure unmet demand for social protection as well as to draw learnings for the design of urban social protection systems.

Anushka Singh ( anushka@aud.ac.in) is an assistant professor at the School of Law, Governance, and Citizenship at Ambedkar University, Delhi.

Kerala suffers less from clientelism, authoritarianism, and neo-liberalism than many other parts of the world, but it is affected by the universal dilemma of how to unify numerous actors and build democratic links between the local, the wider government, and the economy. This article’s comparative insights indicate that the state requires democratic partnership governance to avoid parties and individual leaders cornering power.

“New-generation Malayalam cinema,” a coinage used to identify fi lms made after 2010 in Kerala, introduced innovative changes in the Malayalam cinema ecosystem through experiments in fi lm language, form, and storytelling. The new-generation fi lms are inclusive in their efforts to create conversations around caste, gender, and other marginalised communities that lacked representation in the mainstream cinema of the preceding decades. This article will attempt to scrutinise these changes and identify major interventions through a close reading of a selection of new-generation Malayalam fi lms that have been hailed by critics, scholars, practitioners, and audiences.

Land tenure and land use dynamics are causally linked to pandemics, including the current Covid-19 crisis. Covid-19 has exposed and exacerbated the vulnerabilities of urban and rural population living with land tenure informalities. Drawing upon long-term migration data, this article argues that land and housing tenure requires sustained attention. For tenure security and reforms, governments must design and implement post-revival and resilience strategy across industrial, urban, and rural land uses and economic landscapes.

This study is concerned with the inter-urban analysis of incidents and the rate and nature of the crimes against women in Indian metropolitan cities. The impact (footprints) of metropolitan cities on crimes against women in the respective states is also analysed.

Sri Lanka is facing the worst economic downturn since independence. The economic establishment is proposing austerity to continue the neo-liberal trajectory, which the working people are bound to resist. Will this conjuncture lead to a progressive social contract between the state and the people based on democratic alternatives of redistribution or further repressive liberalisation with dispossession?