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HEALTH- Universal Immunisation Programme

to it (after this had been very consciously side-stepped during the NPE discussions). Not too much is heard by now of non- formal education programmes for working children or any major drive towards universal adult education, though some formal motions were there for an adult education drive last summer and the opening of a number of adult education departments in universities which would end up giving only more 'continuing1 education to the already educated but hardly any effort towards tackling the hard core illiteracy problems of the poor and the exploited, basically negotiable only through conscientisation and struggle-oriented movements coupled with a real move towards redistribution of incomes which would make it possible as well as necessary for the poor to read and write. The old tale of unfilled posts of teachers in schools in cities by the thousand

LABOUR- Rehabilitation Assistance to Closed Textile Mills Workers

mothers and children, (iii) Minor forest produce collection centres in tribal areas, where pregnant mothers likely to come, (iv) In irrigated command areas a large number of pregnant women would be available for coverage under UIP, in peak transplanting seasons and during peak harvest seasons, (iv) In village Anganwadi centres. It is not true as the Ministry of Welfare claims, that in the villages served by Anganwadis, I MR was been brought down basically because of high coverage of children under UIP. In the Anganwadi centres, children above age 2 attend and how can newborns get immunised?, (vi) A significant number of pregnant mothers and children are presently immunised in private nursing homes mostly in urban areas. In most of these polio drops are provided by service clubs like Lions and Rotary. But they do not provide all the six antigens. As long as new borns add to the stock of children in families, UIP would have to track them and their mothers continuously. Ad hoc and sporadic tracking, as is done in immunisation campaigns, helps neither mothers nor children. A system has to be designed now before new districts are taken up under UIP by the government. There is adequate health delivery structure and an inbuilt information base available for MCH activities. Unfortunately UIP is treated as yet another centrally sponsored scheme by the health ministry, where more attention is bestowed on syringes, vaccines, cold chain equipments, walk-in coolers, refrigerators, which are undoubtedly important, but they do not by themselves ensure complete mother and child immunisation, in the absence of a sound tracking system. It is high time that ministry recognises the valuable contribution that non-health sectors can made towards successful UIP and the health improvement of mothers and children.

LATIN AMERICA- Dialectics of Growth and Regression

October 11, 1986 LATIN AMERICA Dialectics of Growth and Regression James Petras THE main feature of Latin American development' in the past six years has been economic and social regression in practically all countries, most sectors and classes of society. And there is no light at the end of the tunnel, despite the periodic upbeat statements emanating from Washington. Sustained regression continues despite the changes in political regime, from military dictatorship to elected civilian regime. In most cases, the inauguration of elected regimes has not prevented deepening socioeconomic deterioration but, has furthered it by assuming the previous socio-economic policies of the military regimes regarding debt payments, wage-income and investment policies and the role of the market.

Requiem for Nuclear Power

October 11, 1986 Requiem for Nuclear Power? S Srinivasan THERE has been an increasing demand for a critical debate on the fundamental questions relating to nuclear energy, culture, environment and the political economy of energy budgets in India. Reflecting the increasing movement against nuclear energy was the attendance at the seminar in Bombay, August 9-10, 1986 on the Atoms in India'. There are now groups in Kerala, Kaiga (Karnataka) and Kakrapar (Surat) with a high degree of participation from the local people.

Education Policy What Next

Education Policy: What Next? Sureshchandra Shukla WHATEVER has happened in the past few months merely confirms our early critiques, viz, that the new education policy has nothing in it for the people1 or that it will serve to recruit a new stratum of abler children from rural and otherwise relatively underprivileged groups to, and fashion them through the residential Navodaya schools into the image of, the metropolitan elite geared to a secondary servicing role vis-a-vis world capital2

WEST BENGAL-Prisoners Plight

October 4, 1986 takings with the government which, by virtue of being the representative of the public in a parliamentary system, is the owner of public sector undertakings. This relationship is not direct and unencumbered. The bureaucratic set-up of the administrative hierarchy plays a crucial interventionary role.

Political Fall-Out from Hongkong s Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear Power Plant Larry Jagan MONTHS of speculation and debate were brought to an end last week when Beijing confirmed that its proposed Daya Bay nuclear-power station was going ahead as planned. A fierce controversy has raged in Hongkong, particularly since Chernobyl, as the plant is situated 50 kilometres north overlooking the colony. Daya Bay has also now been designated a tourist area; taking a leaf from the British nuclear industry the plant is to become a tourist attraction

ANDHRA PRADESH-Encounter Killings Aftermath of Supreme Court Judgment

market-rates inside jails. Two matchboxes bartered with a litre of milk!" comments Haque. BREEDING GROUND FOR CORRUPTION Whatever scope of being linked with productive labour was there in jails, Haque alleges, is diminishing. The prisoners used to grow some vegetables on jail plots to meet their daily requirements. Now the practice has been stopped. Other small-scale productions arc on the verge oi breaking down. "No supply; raw materials not available No fats. No wool. So yarn. But yes, the Left Front has increased the daily wage from six annas to one Rupee. How happy the prisoners are! Yet, if these inmates arc asked the government has fixed the minimum wage for eight hours labour at Rs 8.33. Why you, working for twelve hours, would not get even that rate? They reply

NEW DELHI-Shadow-Boxing over Public Sector

NEW DELHI Shadow-Boxing over Public Sector BM THE debate on industrial and commercial enterprises in the public sector had tended to become for some time quite heated. Privatisation of public sector was very much the talk of the town. The Energy Minister, Vasant Sathe, in particular raised the proverbial hornets' nest when he declaimed against the public sector being treated as a 'holy cow'. His junior colleague, the newly- appointed minister of state in the Industry Ministry, the ebullient K K Tiwari, even started a public controversy over what he regarded as derogatory remarks on the condition of the public sector but which a little thought would suggest has been aptly characterised by Sathe as similar to that of the holy cow in India. Tiwari was anxious to hold forth as a champion of public enterprise and socialism. But the Prime Minister has not let the controversy over the role and status of the public sector to develop further by soft-pedalling the issue and taking a vague stand which leaves all options open for policy-making and administration. There is now, therefore, a laboured attempt at all levels to moderate and play dpwn the controversy on the role of the public sector, its privatisation, and so on. The seminar recently organised by the Forum of Financial Writers was an illustration of how smartly discussions of this kind can be managed. This only emphasised how well and closely the media is being managed by the official establishment.

Oral History Reconstructing Women s Role

September 20-27, 1986 Oral History: Reconstructing Women's Role U Kalpagam WOMENS studies has forced a rethinking among social scientists on the, incorporation of the individual, including individual experiences and consciousness, in the paradigms of social analysis without making the individual to determine nor be determined entirely by the social structure and processes. The relationship between the individual and the social, while recognised as complex is nevertheless important and cannot be excluded from social analysis. Feminist method as understood to be "the collective critical reconstruction of the meaning of women's social experience, as women live through it" recognises that not only women's conscious perception of their experiences is critical but that the method should incorporate the diversities of those experiences,1 The manner in which the diversities of individual experiences are built into the collective reconstitution of the meaning of social experience is a major challenge to social scientists in bringing the gap between the individual and the social. Oral history method plays an important role in this, even if at times only a limited one. This point is well articulated by Paul Thompson.2 For the historian in the mid-twentieth century is confronted by two major forms of theoretical interpretation. On the one hand there are the big theories of social organisation, social control, the division of labour, class struggle and social change: the func- tionalsit and other schools of sociology and the historical theory of Marxism. On the other hand there is the theory of individual personality, of language and the subconscious, represented by the psycho-analytical approach. They can be layered together, as in an individual biography, but no satisfactory way has yet been found of bonding them. Psycho-history, for example has simply resorted to the crude device of analysing whole groups

INDUSTRY-Anatomy of Deceleration

September 20-27, 1986 in which the methods normally used in their respective disciplines proved inadequate. Kaipagam in an attempt to examine the survival strategies of the urban poor and their coping mechanisms, in particular the extent to which there existed differential burdens of survival between men and women, found an in-depth anthropological study of households more useful than a survey type of study which economists and sociologists normally used. And in so doing, life histories of families were collected and analysed.

EDUCATION-NCERT s Silver Jubilee

NCERT's Silver Jubilee Krishna Kumar IT is unthinkable that anyone involved in education today should have the time and the frame of mind to jubilate. The scene is extremely dismal by whatever standard one chooses to look at it. The system now seems capable of just one social function

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