ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Measles-Rubella Vaccine

The mandatory measles–rubella (MR) vaccination drive initiated in schools by the Indian government in October 2019 has raised questions regarding whether informed consent was sought from parents prior to vaccination and its legal implications. This article presents a comprehensive picture of informed consent processes, ethics, and the law, and the need for evidence prior to implementing national vaccination policies. In the case of a combination vaccine such as the MR vaccine, we see that the rubella vaccine gained entry to India’s universal immunisation programme (UIP) without clear scientific evidence on its disease burden and in the absence of public demand for such a vaccine by piggybacking on another universal vaccine (measles).

Manufacturing Slowdown in India

The real value added in the Indian manufacturing sector for the period 2011–12 to 2016–17 is measured using the double defl ation approach. It is found that the official figures understate manufacturing real value added during the period 2011–12 to 2013–14, and overstate it thereafter, as well as miss an apparent manufacturing contraction that occurred in 2014–15. The results are corroborated by the movement of high frequency indicators that are correlated with manufacturing activity.

What Drives Transitions in Milk Productivity?

The trend in milk productivity and its association with breed improvement, feeding and animal husbandry practices, and effi ciency in dairy farming at the household level are examined using the representative cost of cultivation surveys in Punjab. Although milk yield at the farm level is rising due to the increasing adoption of cross-bred cattle and changing composition of animal rations, evidence is found to support the argument to popularise cross-bred technology for realising a higher milk yield. However, the rising trend in milk yield coexists with declining effi ciency levels in milk production.

Women’s Education and Fertility in the Hindi Heartland

Using evidences from the Sample Registration System and the third and fourth rounds of the National Family Health Survey, this article shows that the fertility rate continues to be high in the Hindi heartland of the country, and that too among educated women. It also proposes some plausible hypotheses in this regard, which would require validation through further research.

Dynamic Multiplier Effects of Foreign Remittances

India continues to be the largest recipient of remittances across the world, with a tremendous growth in private unrequited transfers from just ₹12 billion in 1990–91 to about ₹1,009 billion in 2015–16. Emphasising this component of remittances that India has witnessed during the post-liberalisation period, the article investigates the demand-side macroeconomic effects of the flow of private transfers on key variables such as consumption, investment, imports, and income in India during the post-reform period of 1996–2014.

Roadblocks towards the Right to Education

A study in three slum communities in Delhi identifies and analyses the problems and challenges that parents and children from economically weaker sections and disadvantaged groups face while accessing the right to education. These problems are partly on account of the apathetic administration of private schools and partly due to the lack of accountability from the state government, and the lack of awareness about the provisions of the RTE Act.

India’s Withdrawal from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

India withdrew from the largest ever free trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership after a multitude of stakeholders, including farmers’ organisations, trade unions, and industry associations, spoke in one voice on the adverse implications of the agreement. India has three FTAs with the members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Korea and Japan, which were expected to increase India’s exports. Exports did not increase as Indian enterprises lack competitiveness, but imports from the partner countries expanded, leading to the haemorrhaging of domestic manufacturing. Future participation in FTAs must be conditioned on improving the competitiveness of domestic entities.

Public Investment for Addressing Childhood Wasting in Maharashtra and Karnataka

Maharashtra and Karnataka are among the most financially well-off states in India. Yet, they are home to 15% of all wasted children under five years of age in the country. Over the last decade (between National Family Health Survey-3 and NFHS-4), wasting levels among children in the two states have increased sharply. Investment by the two states in select nutrition interventions for addressing wasting remains low, with inconsistent budget outlays over the period between 2014–15 and 2018–19.

Neighbourhood-scale Residential Segregation in Indian Metros

Residential segregation studies in Indian cities have relied on ward-level data. For a typical ward, the neighbourhood–ward dissimilarity index is greater than the ward–city dissimilarity index. Using 2011 enumeration block-level census data for five major cities in India—Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai—it is shown how patterns of caste-based urban residential segregation operate in contemporary India. The first visual snapshot of caste-based residential segregation in an Indian city is presented using geo-referenced enumeration block-level data for Bengaluru.

Agrarian Potential of In-Situ Water Harvesting

Despite substantial government expenditure on major and medium irrigation systems, Indian agriculture continues being predominantly rain-fed. But increasing private interventions for water control, such as farm ponds, mark the emerging importance of in-situ irrigation systems for India’s agrarian dynamism. A case study of farm ponds in Jharkhand finds the contribution of these in increasing the agrarian surplus through yield enhancement, crop diversification and crop intensification. However, the financial viability of such a system is scale dependent with farm ponds of only a certain size generating high benefit-cost ratio and internal rate of return.

Alarming Rise of Caesarean Section Deliveries

The phenomenal increase in institutional births in India has been accompanied by a disturbing rise in caesarean section deliveries. The prevalence of, reasons for, and consequences of c-section deliveries in the town of Kulgam in Jammu and Kashmir are studied. The findings not only reveal an alarmingly high prevalence of c-section deliveries in the town, but also that these deliveries are being largely performed without medical indications, adversely affecting the health of women. In order to monitor and control c-section deliveries in the country, immediate policy interventions are required.

Investment and Growth

The simplicity of the Harrod–Domar model of growth, which is at the heart of most planning and growth models that exist today, has enabled a significant widening of the range of participants in debates surrounding the needs and prospects of growth in developing countries. Three of the more obvious oversimplifications of the Harrod–Domar model are identified and discussed, and reasonably simple correctives are provided which can be applied even by laypersons to alter their initial assessments and arrive at more realistic and technically justifiable conclusions.


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