ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846
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European Monopoly Corporations and Indian Entrepreneurships, 1913-1922-Early Politics of Coal in Eastern India

At the beginning of the twentieth century there was a striking development of Indian enterprise in the coal industry which led to sharp conflict between European managing agencies involved in coal mining and Indian colliery owners and coal traders. The conflict took the form of a confrontation between the Indian Mining Association, affiliated to the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, which had long represented the collective interests of the bigger European coal companies, and the Indian Mining Federation, newly organised in 1913 to promote unity among Indian colliery owners and affiliated to the Bengal National Chamber of Commerce.

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