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Many Faces of Modern Management

 modern Nepal, had turned his attention to eastern Nepal after his conquest of Kathmandu valley. He was particularly interested in controlling eastern terat and is said to have written to his generals in the field that there was little value in securing control of the low revenue yielding hill region without also appropriating the far richer tcrai. lie was right. Revenue earned from eastern terai became a major source of income for government. Nepalese expansion along the Himalayas in the late 18th and early 19th centuries paralleled the expansion of British power on the Gangetic plains and inevitably there was conflict between the two powers in the terai where their administrators and soldiers came face to lace. The struggle for control of But- wal and Shivaraj in mid-western terai ultimately led to the Anglo-Nepal war of 1814-10. When, after a valiant struggle by the Nepalese, the British finally established their superiority, they confiscated the entire terai under the treaty of Sugauli in 1819. However, a year later a part of the terai from the Mechi to the western Rapti was returned to Nepal and in 1858, after the Nepalese aided the British during the first war of Indian independence, western terai was also restored. During the Rana period between 184fl and 1951, birta or tax free grants of terai land were given liberally to royal family members and loyal retainers. For the largest birta holders income from these lands accumulated into fortunes. The Rana government, in order to increase land revenue, encouraged Indian zamindars and tenant cultivators to clear land and settle in non-birta terai areas. Mid-western terai was settled largely in this manner during the 1920s and 30s. Till the last few decades, the pressure of population on available cultivatable land in the hills was not critical and government could not persuade hill people to accept land-holdings in the hot and dusty terai. Besides, malaria was endemic in the terai until recently, and onlv the landless plains people were willing to face this risk. Thus over the years the terai has been settled largely by plains people speaking Maithili, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Bengali and Urdu. By the 1960s the terai had become the economic backbone of the country.

Organisational Behaviour

measuring the opportunity cost and profit which measures the difference between price and cost discounted at some rate. The internal rate of return I have used may be interpreted as an opportunity cost, discount rate or pro- fit rate depending upon the objective of the exercise.

Entrepreneur s Challenge to Career Managers

Entrepreneur's Challenge to Career Managers Arabinda Ray PROFESSIONAL management is not an altogether new concept in India. Throughout the Moghul period and later, under the British, after the introduction of the Permanent Settlement, a powerful managerial class, quite apart from the owner class, emerged to look after real estate with the skills of supervision that the age demanded.

The Management Gap

ECONOMIC AMD POLITICAL WEEKLY Thus, Maharashtra and Gujarat appear to have the highest rank in respect of comparative advantage in growing cane when the third criterion is employed, Next come UP and Mysore (and not Mysore and Andhra Pradesh, as the Commission has erroneously translated its own tabular data) RESERVATIONS Let me now spell out my reservations about the comparative advantage among States as assessed in the preceding para. First, in view of the discrepancy found in the Commission's Report, the conclusions emerging from the third criterion, viz, ratio of per acre value of cane output and per acre value of output of two competing crops, tend to shake our confidence in them. Second, the Commission makes no appropriate adjustment in its calculations for the irrigation factor. If the two crops, which are considered for comparison with cane in assessing the comparative advantage among States, do not happen to be irrigated to the same extent as cane in a given State, inter-State comparison is vitiated by the irrigation factor, unless in each State the difference arising on account of irrigation is of the same magnitude.
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