ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Awareness and Perception of Diabetics in Punjab

Diabetes Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies

Awareness about risk factors is a prerequisite for the prevention of diabetes mellitus amongst diabetic patients. A questionnaire-based survey of diabetic patients adapted from “WHO-STEPS Surveillance” was performed during 2018 in Punjab, using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The overall awareness level was found to be 83%, but perception and comprehension regarding risk factors and prevention strategies are still at a nascent stage. There is need for innovative awareness programmes and government campaigns on the consequences of lifestyle modification, sedentary lifestyle, and altering epidemiology of diabetes.


Diabetes mellitus, more simply called diabetes, is a chronic metabolic condition that occurs to happen when the pancreas does not produce adequate insulin or when the body could not efficiently use the insulin produced by pancreas (Alberti and Zimmet 1998; WHO 1999). Diabetes is recognised as a major chronic epidemic that does not consider ethnic backgrounds and monetary levels in both developing and developed economies (Mumu et al 2014; Unnikrishnan et al 2016). Diabetes can affect individuals at the very onset of their productive age, impoverish households, reduce the life-expectancy of people, and has been designated the status of “public health priority” (Zimmet et al 2001; International Diabetes Federation 2015). As of 2015, more than 415 million individuals have been diagnosed with diabetes, and the number is estimated to escalate to 642 million by 2040 (Tripathy et al 2018). In monetary terms, diabetes constitutes an enormous economic burden globally, with an

estimated healthcare expenditure of USD of 727 billion being spent annually by diabetic ­patients, which corresponds to one for every eight dollars spent on healthcare for that particular year. (International Diabetes Federation 2017)

India is the epicentre of diabetes and, by 2017, India constituted the second largest populace of 73 million patients, after China (International Diabetes Federation 2017). Over the past couple of decades, especially since the new economic reforms, the lifestyle modification of an average Indian has undergone an across-the-board alteration (Ramachandran 2007). Diabetes in India is on the upsurge as a consequence of swift cultural and socio-economic changes, namely ageing, education, nutritional transition, less labour/physical activity, and unhealthy behaviour like alcohol consumption, tobacco abuse, and low fruit intake (Ng and Popkin 2012; Misra et al 2014; Dhanaraj 2016; Oommen et al 2016; Thakur et al 2016). Furthermore, Indians are believed to be more prone to insulin resistance and have a vulnerable hereditary tendency towards diabetes (Mohan 2004). Besides this context, knowledge of the altering epidemiology of diabetes is of utmost priority in India. The estimated economic burden of diabetes in India for 2012–30 is evaluated to be $0.15 trillion and it exhausts somewhat 5% to 25% of a common Indian household’s earnings towards seeking healthcare (Kansra 2018a).

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Updated On : 31st Jan, 2021
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