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Construction of Gender Roles in Bengali Print Advertisement (2001–05)

Amrita Basu Roy Chowdhury (basuroy_amrita@yahoo.co.in) is with the School of Women’s Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata

Advertisement in globalised India has been a major area of discussion, producing a large debate on the depiction of gender roles in the media, both in print and audio-visual. This article explores how gender roles have been constructed in Bengali print advertisement from 2001–05, and locates the shifts in images, if any.

 

 

 

Globalization appears to be the buzzword of the 1990s, the primary attractor of books, articles, and heated debate, just as postmodernism was the most fashionable and debated topic of the 1980s. (Kellner 2002: 285)

 

Globalisation has possibly been one of the most widely and critically debated phenomena of recent times. Globalisation, in a literal sense, is an international integration. The governments, international governmental mechanisms, academicians, non-government organisations, policy formulators, planners, and administrators are engaged in discussions on issues related to globalisation and its effect on different societies and various strata of such societies. Quite understandably, achieving a consensus or a generalised axiom on such issues has been problematic as such ideas, findings and interpretations are complicated, subjective, and more often than not, in conflict with each other, either wholly or partly. The neo-liberal policies and their apparent impacts on women have been of concern to many, especially feminists. On the one hand, many critics have been anxious about the fact that globalisation might exacerbate gender inequalities and thus affect women—especially of the developing countries. On the other, the propagators of globalisation believe that some features of globalisation might have liberating influence in patriarchal societies where women have been oppressed for ages.

Liberalisation, along with globalisation, ushered in new changes in every sphere of the society, be it economic, social, political or cultural. The rapid economic growth, mingled with an expansion of the middle class and proliferation of global culture, has led to the development of a rise in the culture of consumption.

 

Leela Fernandes (2000) in her essay, “Restructuring the New Middle Class in Liberalizing India,” points out that the policies of economic liberalisation commenced in the 1990s have produced a major debate on the role of the urban middle class as consumer in contemporary India. This debate was centred on the role of the urban middle class in the context of a culture of consumption which developed as a new consumerism became available with the onset of liberalisation in late 20th century India.

 

Advertising and media images have contributed to the creation of an image of a ‘new’ Indian middle class, one that has left behind its dependence on austerity and state protection and has embraced an open India that is at ease with broader processes of globalization. In this image, the newness of the middle class rests on its embrace of social practices of taste and commodity consumption that mark a new cultural standard that is specifically associated with liberalization and the opening of the Indian market to the global economy. (Fernandes 2000: 89)

 

According to the Economic Survey 2000–01 published by the Ministry of Finance, Government of India, the “shift” in the image of Indian woman in the representation of media is also a result of an encouragement of private investment in industry and infrastructure, inducing sustained high growth in the service sector. In 2001, the National Human Development Report (NHDR) stated that between 1990 and 1999 there has been a substantial increase in the number of women employed in the public sector. In 1990, 22.50 lakh women were employed in the public sector which increased to 28.11 lakh in 1999. There was a significant increase in the participation of women in private sector as well. The NHDR also suggests that the number of women employed in the private sector rose from 13.94 lakh in 1990 to 20.18 lakh in 1999. As more women stepped out of the “private space” of the family and joined the workforce (public and private), there emerged a new image of the middle-class woman that started dominating the cultural milieu of consumer capitalism.

 

Now to talk about the terms “construction” and “gender,” let me convey the sense in which I would like to use the term, construction. Merriam Webster Dictionary defines construction as “the way something is built or made” or “a way of understanding something.” There are other meanings of the term as well, but in this article, I follow the meaning of construction as mentioned above.

 

Now to talk about the term, gender, Shefali Moitra in her essay “The Sex/Gender System” (2002: 104) points out that sex is something biological which is pre-given and natural, whereas gender is socially constructed, culturally specific, and historically produced. But gender is a cultural category where a specific culture fixes certain norms and roles which are thrust upon male and female, and attributed as “masculine” and “feminine.” In most cultures, ideally men are expected to be rational, assertive, and brave, and women are expected to be emotional, receptive, and compassionate. This gender division is prevalent in all cultures. Feminists have pointed out that the attributes associated with male gender roles have always been valorised. But traits attributed to women are seen as something derogatory. To validate,

 

Gender is a Cultural construct. Each culture imposes certain norms on the behaviour of men and women. These are prescriptions for appropriate behaviour. Like in most cultures ideally men are expected to be aggressive, assertive and brave among many other things and women are expected to be passive, receptive and caring. (Moitra 2002: 106).

 

Before I step into the argument in this article, I would like to begin with the basic notion of advertisements propagated by different sociologists. As researchers attempt to study and explain how mass communication affects our society, advertisements become a popular field for study. Although its messages may be short, they are often powerful, persuasive, and influential in shaping the attitude and the behaviour of the society at large.

 

In Ogilvy on Advertising, David Ogilvy (1985) writes about some major aspects of advertisements. He states that, advertisements are more of a medium of information rather than just a source of entertainment or creativity. Advertising attempts to put forth an image of ideals to be obtained by society. The ideals they portray do not necessarily reflect society but may influence people’s beliefs about the world outside of their immediate environment. It is not surprising that advertising has a key role in ideological construction and transformation of public discourse. In Goffman’s (1979) terms, advertising serves to define, or frame reality, and thus, the social impact of advertising cannot be overlooked. Advertising can also be defined as something paid for mass media communication, and a means to manage and control consumer markets (Brierley 1995).

 

Mass advertising grew from the need to stimulate consumption to meet the demands of mass production. Manufacturers used mass media advertising to appeal to consumers over the heads of wholesalers and retailers. Advertisers were also able to use the high cost of advertising as a prohibitive mechanism to keep out potential challengers in their markets. Ownership and control of markets became more concentrated and consumers had to pay more for their goods. (1995:12)

 

It is clear that advertisers seem quite willing to exploit our gender identities in order to sell products. Maitrayee Chaudhuri (2001) in her article “Gender and Advertisement: The Rhetoric of Globalization” asserts that the shift in the Indian state’s economic policy in favour of globalisation has also generated a transformation as witnessed in the media, especially print media. The relationship between media and advertisement gets more complicated in a developing country such as India as the issue here is not just being profit-driven, but driven by international capitalist force. The liberalisation of the economy meant new ideas, new work avenues and even newer ways of life. Consumerism fuelled by the economic growth of urban middle class through the 1990s made it possible for women to venture out and explore new career paths, such as working in the media or call centres or in the medical transcription industry.

 

Changing Images of Domesticity

 

Malini Bhattacharya in her essay “Culture” has stated that the advertisements in the 1990s highlight a remarkable increase in the “consumption oriented spending and a gradual but significant change towards targeting women as consumers to a large extent” (2005: 104). There has been a shift in the stereotyping of the image of woman as represented in advertisements on television, in newspapers and so on. The form of “femininity” as portrayed in advertisements underwent considerable changes with the emergence of globalisation and open market. Prior to 1990s, women were represented in advertisements either as daughter/housewife/mother or as the seductress. The image of the woman as a seductress remained unchanged with the advent of globalisation. However, there were significant changes in the image of the woman as daughter/housewife/mother.

 

The represented image of the Indian woman no longer remained explicitly traditional though that does not mean that the codes and notions of Indian tradition had become inactive. The new avatar of women catered to the requirements of the global market while simultaneously retaining their traditional features. Though mother/daughter/wife is her stereotypical role, her appearance and the language of the text in which she appears is liberated from the typical stereotyping of the docile domesticity in the Indian society. This is very much evident in the image of the “Whirlpool Lady” who performs all the “tasks” smoothly—from washing clothes to preparing “ice-magic” items. In this advertisement, the woman is an active housewife performing all her duties to fulfil the needs of the family members. But here we see her comfortable in jeans and short hair. To be a good housewife/ mother she does not need to put on saree or wear a bindi. However, the question remains regarding the notion of liberty: is it measured simply in the choice of attire by a woman?

 

There were also significant shifts in the gender roles performed by men as revealed in the print and audio–visual advertisement. The Horlicks health drink has built up its ad-narrative centred on a caring husband worried about his wife’s health. It seems that the husband is not only the bread earner of the family but also a caregiver. Traditionally, we see woman in this particular role, but here the gender role reverses. From gender perspective, it can be said that there is an underlying gender politics behind this advertisement, flagging the idea that the woman of the household should be kept in good health so that her household activities are not disrupted. Here I would like to refer to the observation of Iris Mayne:

 

Women were usually shown in television advertising using cosmetics and personal hygiene products or products that are designed to clean the house or cooking for the family. The implications from this are that women need to improve their looks and that their natural setting is the home … If the preferred reading of an advertisement is that women are happy to be polishing and cleaning rather than feeling exhausted and depressed, the product is likely to sell. A woman’s sense of duty is appealed to. It is a sense of duty that advertising helped to create. There is moral black mail in an advertisement that shows a baby sitting on a kitchen floor and then offers to sell a product that ‘kills 99 per cent of all known germs.’ (2000: 58)

 

Though Mayne’s observation is based on a study on television advertisements and women’s magazines in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1990s, the observation seems valid and true in the Indian context as well. The above-mentioned advertisement of Horlicks only reiterates Mayne’s finding.

Time and Area

 

This article proposes to concentrate on the advertisements published in Bengali newspapers from 2001 to 2005. I have selected two widely circulated Bengali newspapers of every year under study as per reports of the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) in India which ranks newspapers published in different languages every year. For this particular article, I will concentrate on the product advertisements of the above-mentioned period.

 

According to Stokes and Lomax (2008: 217), products can be classified according to their tangibility, durability, and end use. According to tangibility, products can be divided into two categories, tangible products, and intangible or service products. Tangible products are further sub-divided based on their durability—non-durable product or fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) and durable products. Non-durable products are consumed relatively rapidly and usually reordered regularly. Durable products survive many uses and are replaced infrequently if at all. Product advertisement thus, covers a vast area which includes FMCG/non-durable goods (for example, beauty products, food and beverage, toiletry, health-related products and so on), durable goods (for example, furniture, dressing products, electrical and electronic goods and so on) and also service products (hospitality products, financial products which include insurance, credit/debit cards, loans, etc). Though there are other categories of consumer product, I will be majorly working on these three categories.

 

Methodology

This study employs a descriptive qualitative content analysis. In one of its enunciations, qualitative content analysis differs from quantitative analysis because it employs inductive, subjective, theory-generating processes, while quantitative research deals with processes that are deductive, objective, and theory testing (McNabb 2002). According to Babbie and Rubin, qualitative analysis predates quantitative analysis and employs “methods for examining social research data without converting them to numerical format” (2005: 527). The aim of qualitative content analysis is to be structured and systematic, but still be analytic by looking at the depth and breadth of the data being analysed.

 

Krippendorff (2004) also identifies four primary advantages of content analysis. First, it is unobtrusive. Second, it is context sensitive, and therefore allows the researcher to process data that is significant, meaningful, informative, and representational of others. Third, it can cope with large volumes of data. Fourth and most importantly, it is unstructured and so preserves the conceptions of the data’s sources. Content analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, has been critiqued for its limitations. The findings for a particular content are limited to the framework of the categories and the definitions employed in that analysis (Dominick and Wimmer 2005). In order to minimise this limitation, quantitative content analysis requires that categories should be defined precisely so that other researchers can apply the same tools to the same data and achieve the same results (Dominick and Wimmer 2005). Content analysis is also limited, in that there is a lack of messages relevant to the research. It can be time consuming and expensive, because analysing and classifying large volumes of content is both labour intensive and tedious (Dominick and Wimmer 2005: 154).

 

For the purposes of my study, a random sampling technique was used. I have collected 135 advertisements from Anandabazaar Patrika and Bartaman published between 2001 and 2005. Out of these, 55 advertisements have been repetitively published on different dates of the period under study and 20 advertisements did not significantly portray gender trait/s. Thus, these sets of advertisements were not considered for the purpose of analysis. 60 advertisements displayed different gender roles performed by men and women, among which five advertisements have been selected to be analysed thoroughly for this article which will be followed by some statistical information presented in the form of tables.

 

Content Analysis

 

Let us now go to the content analysis of five advertisements from gender perspective.

 

Advertisement 1

 

 

 

 

 

Manufacturer / Brand

Keo Karpin Body Oil

Type of product

FMCG / Non-durable

Subcategory

Skincare

Domain

Private

Year

2004

Paper

Bartaman

     

Gender

Character Role

Representation of Character

Occupation

Female

Seductress / Object of desire

Female celebrity

Celebrity/Actress

 

Comments/Analysis

 

Keo Karpin Body Oil is an FMCG product meant for female consumers. We can visualise the presence of the celebrity/actress Sridevi for the promotion of the product. She appears to us as an object of desire in this advertisement. While a celebrity endorsing a product is commonplace, some of the common character roles played by female celebrities include either getting benefits out of the product, or in an advisory/recommending role, or both. The above advertisement does not clearly indicate whether the celebrity is herself using the product. The presence of the celebrity in a domestic/private space also lends support to the fact that the advertisers are informing the female fraternity to use their product, so that they too can become such objects of desire as the classic reclining passive nude of the Western painting genre. The caption further adds to the overall message intended—a promise of glowing beauty on using the product.

           

 

Advertisement 2

 

 

Manufacturer / Brand

Protex

Type of product

FMCG/Non-durable

Subcategory

Skincare

Domain

Private

Year

2002

Paper

Anandabazaar Patrika

 

 

 

 

Gender

Character Role

Representation of Character

Occupation

Female

Decision maker in household matters

A member of the family

Occupation not identifiable

Comments/Analysis

Protex is a skincare product which keeps the family protected from dust and bacteria. The most significant thing about this ad is that the female/mother figure is solely responsible for healthcare of the family. Here, she appears as a decision maker recommending the use of Protex. Hygiene is related to the better reproduction of family ideals and values, and pivots on the chaste clean and hygienic figure of the woman.

         

 

Advertisement 3

 

 

Manufacturer / Brand

LIC

Type of product

Service

Subcategory

Insurance products

Domain

Private

Year

2003

Paper

Anandabazaar Patrika

     

 

Gender

Character Role

Representation of Character

Occupation

Group (Mixed Sex)

Getting benefits out of the product

All Family members

Mixed profession— (group)

Comments/Analysis

 

This particular advertisement talks about a family where each of the members is an insurance policy holder although it the investor is not identifiable. Perhaps this particular advertisement connotes that it is the male member of the family who has to take care of the financial security of the family.

         

 

 

 

 

Advertisement 4

 

 

Manufacturer / Brand

D D Hosiery

Type of product

Durable goods

Subcategory

Inner garments

Domain

Not identifiable

Year

2002

Paper

Anandabazaar Patrika

     

 

Gender

Character Role

Representation of Character

Occupation

Male

Getting benefits out of the product

Not identifiable

Occupation not identifiable

Comments/Analysis

 

The D D Hosiery advertisement seems to project the male character as endeavouring to impress the lady present in the advertisement. The message of this ad is clear: Not only does wearing D D Hosiery inner garments give one comfort (as understood from the tag lines), one will be admired/desired by members of the opposite gender, here the female (as understood from the woman in picture).

         

 

Advertisement 5

 

 

 

Manufacturer / Brand

Tru-Tone

 

Type of product

FMCG / Non-durable

 

Subcategory

Haircare

 

Domain

Private (subdomain not identifiable)

 

Year

2001

 

Paper

Anandabazaar Patrika

 

   

 

 

 

Gender

Character Role

Representation of Character

Occupation

 

Female (Central Character)/Male

Getting benefit out of the product

A member of the family

Occupation not identifiable

 

Comments/Analysis

Tru-Tone is a haircare product that claims to make a woman look younger as evident from the tag line of the advertisement. The most significant thing about this ad is that the female figure is completely preoccupied with the notion of convincing her husband about her beauty. Here, she appears as a consumer of the product who makes her husband bunk his work, overwhelmed by her exquisitely beautiful hair.

 

           

 

 

Table I: Sector-wise Distribution of All Products

Product Brand / Sector

Durable Goods

FMCG / Non-Durable

Services

Grand Total

Samsung

2

 

 

2

LIC

 

 

2

2

Airtel Magic

 

 

2

2

Allahabad Bank

 

 

1

1

Avon Classic

1

 

 

1

B C Sen

1

 

 

1

DUTA

 

1

 

1

Esprit

1

 

 

1

Gini Emporium

1

 

 

1

Health

 

1

 

1

Kingston

 

1

 

1

Maruti Suzuki

1

 

 

1

Parle Biscuits

 

1

 

1

Pepsi

 

1

 

1

Pillsbury

 

1

 

1

Rupayan Jewellers

1

 

 

1

Sreeleathers

 

1

 

1

Tortoise Power

 

1

 

1

Climax Spray

 

1

 

1

Thirty Plus (Ajanta Pharma Limited)

 

1

 

1

Baidyanath Vita-Ex Gold

 

1

 

1

Chandrani Pearls

1

 

 

1

Hannyman's Naboful Tel

 

1

 

1

Beauty Improver Capsule

 

1

 

1

Aquaguard

1

 

 

1

LIC Bima Plus

 

 

1

1

LUX

 

1

 

1

Fortune

 

1

 

1

Motorola

1

 

 

1

Bajaj Legend NXT 2

1

 

 

1

FUJI FILM

1

 

 

1

BSNL

 

 

1

1

Hyundai

1

 

 

1

Om Kotak Mahindra

 

 

1

1

Bajaj Allianz

 

 

1

1

Whirlpool

1

 

 

1

ECROZ

 

1

 

1

Guinea Emporium

1

 

 

1

Titanic K 2

 

1

 

1

SBI Life

 

 

1

1

Bagpiper

 

1

 

1

Euroclean

1

 

 

1

Mcdowell's

 

1

 

1

SBI

 

 

1

1

Kohinoor Extra Time

 

1

 

1

Kenstar

1

 

 

1

LAKME

 

1

 

1

Parle Krack Jack

 

1

 

1

Wills Classic

 

1

 

1

Burnpur Cement

1

 

 

1

Relaxwell Mattress

1

 

 

1

INDUSIND BANK

 

 

1

1

Parryware

1

 

 

1

REGENT

 

1

 

1

Sony Ericsson

1

 

 

1

Grand Total

23

25

12

60

 

                                           Table 2: Products Exclusively for Female

Product Brand / Sector

Durable Goods

FMCG / Non- Durable

Services

Grand Total

Allahabad Bank

   

1

1

Avon Classic

1

   

1

B C Sen

1

   

1

Gini Emporium

1

   

1

Rupayan Jewellers

1

   

1

Chandrani Pearls

1

   

1

Hannyman's Naboful Tel

 

1

 

1

LUX

 

1

 

1

ECROZ

 

1

 

1

Guinea Emporium

1

   

1

Tru-Tone

 

1

 

1

Grand Total

6

4

1

11

 

Table 3: Products Exclusively for Male

Product Brand / Sector

Durable Goods

FMCG / Non-Durable

Grand Total

Climax Spray

 

1

1

Baidyanath Vita-Ex Gold

 

1

1

D D Hosiery

1

 

1

Titanic K 2

 

1

1

Kohinoor Extra Time

 

1

1

Grand Total

1

4

5

 

Table 4: All Roles Performed by Central Character I—Sector-wise distribution.

Central Character—I : Role (Both Male and Female)

Durable Goods

FMCG / Non-Durable

Services

Grand Total

Adding glamour quotient—standalone basis

8

2

 

10

Not applicable

4

5

 

9

Advisory / counsellor / recommending

2

4

2

8

Fun goer (s)—using the product

1

5

1

7

Getting benefits out of the product

2

3

2

7

Responsible in household matters

2

3

 

5

Decision maker in financial matters

1

 

2

3

Responsible in financial matters

 

 

3

3

A happy and responsible family

 

1

1

2

Seducer / seductress / object of desire

1

1

 

2

Decision maker in both public / private domain

 

1

 

1

Informative

1

 

 

1

Responsible in both public/ private domain

 

 

1

1

Responsible parenting

1

 

 

1

Adding glamour quotient - standalone basis

8

2

 

10

Grand Total

23

25

12

60

 

Table 5 : Central Character—I Gender : Female and Female Group

Central Character - I : Role

Durable Goods

FMCG/Non-durable

Services

Grand Total

Adding glamour quotient—standalone basis

8

2

 

10

Advisory / counsellor / recommending

1

4

1

6

Responsible in household matters

2

2

 

4

Getting benefits out of the product

1

 

1

2

Seducer / seductress / Object of desire

1

1

 

2

Decision maker in financial matters

 

 

1

1

Fun goer (s)—using the product

 

 

1

1

Responsible in both public/ private domain

 

 

1

1

Responsible in financial matters

 

 

1

1

Responsible parenting

1

 

 

1

Grand Total

14

9

6

29

 

Table 6 : Central Character—I Gender: Male and Male Group

Central Character—I : Role

Durable Goods

FMCG / Non- Durable

Services

Grand Total

Fun goer (s)—using the product

 

4

 

4

Advisory / counsellor / recommending

1

 

1

2

Decision maker in financial matters

1

 

1

2

Getting benefits out of the product

 

2

 

2

A happy and responsible family

 

1

 

1

Decision maker in both public / private domain

 

1

 

1

Informative

1

 

 

1

Responsible in financial matters

 

 

1

1

Responsible in household matters

 

1

 

1

Grand Total

3

9

3

15

 

From the Tables

 

From Table 1, we find that among the 60 advertisements, 23 are for durable products, 25 for FMCGs and 12 for service products.

 

Table 2 shows products exclusively used by women. Among the 11 advertisements, six are for durable products, four for FMCGs and one for a service product. Significantly, among the six for durable products, four products exclusively for women are jewellery. Among the four FMGG products, three are beauty products for women and one is a product is for women’s reproductive health.

 

Table 3 reveals the products exclusively used by men. Among the five advertisements, one is for a durable product and four on FMCGs. The four FMCGs exclusively used by men are related to reproductive health.

 

Table 4 deals with roles of central character in 60 different products, represented by both men and women. This table is further bifurcated into Table 5 and Table 6 based on the gender. Table 5 and Table 6 respectively deal with the role played by women and men in the advertisements of different products.

 

In the advertisements, we find women taking more responsibility in household matters, while men take decisions in financial matters. Though we find women playing different roles in advertisements, there is still a trend of managing both private and public space in case of women. At times, this makes woman not just a woman but a “super woman.” This kind of portrayal of women is quite threatening to our society. We do not find it compulsory for a man to work at home after working in the public space, rather he receives the cordial service of his wife/mother/sister/domestic help once he comes back home from office.

 

I would like to mention John Berger’s perceptions here. Berger (1972) points out that traditionally, men and women have different types of social presence. Men are measured by the degree of power they offer. The power may be in any number of forms—moral, physical, economic, etc. A man’s presence suggests what he may or may not be able to do to or for you.

 

In contrast to this, a woman’s presence indicates what can or cannot be done to her. Everything she does contributes to her presence. She is born into the keeping of men, and from childhood is taught to survey herself, with the result that her being is split into two—the surveyed and the surveyor. Her own sense of being is replaced by a sense of being appreciated by others, ultimately men. He acts, she appears, and she watches herself being looked at. “The surveyor of woman in herself is male: the surveyed female. Thus she turns herself into an object—and most particularly an object of vision: a sight.” (Berger 1972: 47).

 

References:

 

Babbie, E and A Rubin (2005): Research Methods for Social Work, Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

 

Berger, John (1972): Ways of Seeing, UK: Penguin.

 

Bhattacharya, Malini (2005): “Culture,” The Changing Status of Women in West Bengal, 1970–2000 The Challenge Ahead, New Delhi: Sage Publication.

 

Brierley, Sean (1995): The Adverting Handbook, London: Routledge.

 

Chaudhuri, Maitrayee (2001): “Gender and Advertisement: The Rhetoric of Globalization,” Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol 24, Nos 3 and 4, pp 373–385.

 

Dominick, J R and R D Wimmer (2005): Mass Media Research: An Introduction, Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

 

Fernandes, Leela (2000): “Restructuring the New Middle Class in Liberalizing India,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Vol 20, Nos 1 and 2, pp 88–104.

 

Goffman, E (1979): Gender Advertisements, London: Macmillan.

 

Kellner, Douglas (2002): “Theorizing Globalization,” Sociological Theory, Vol 20, No 3, pp 285–305.

 

Krippendorff, K (2004): Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology, London, UK:

Sage Publications.

 

Mayne, Iris (2000): “The Inescapable Images: Gender and Advertising,” Equal Opportunities International, Vol 19, Nos 2/3/4, pp 56–61.

 

McNabb, D (2002): Research Methods in Public Administration and Non-profit Management: Quantitative and Qualitative, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

 

Moitra, Shefali (2002): “The Sex/Gender System,” Feminist Thought: Androcenticism, Communication and Objectivity, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publisher, pp 6–29.

 

Ogilvy, David (1985): Ogilvy on Advertising, US: Vintage Books.

 

Stokes, David and Wendy Lomax (2008): Marketing: A Brief Introduction, United Kingdom: Jennifer Pegg.

 

Updated On : 7th Jun, 2017

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