ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Dynamics of Ganja Cultivation in Manipur

Case Study of a Village in Ukhrul District

In the absence of alternative means of livelihood, ganja cultivation for decades has been the mainstay of livelihood for many families in the backward district of Ukhrul, Manipur. For these poor cultivators, earning a living takes precedence over considerations of morality and dangers involved in the illegal cultivation of this crop.

Over the decades, several international treaties have been passed to tackle the problem of illegal drugs. These treaties viz., the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971 and the UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988, continue to define the international drug control system. India is a signatory to all these conventions. Article 47 of the Constitution of India also mandates that “the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health”.

To meet the obligations under the three UN drug Conventions as well as Article 47 of the Constitution, the Indian government passed the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, 1985. This Act prohibits  

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