ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846
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Patterns of Female Employment in Urban India

This paper analyses the all-India trends in the rate of growth of employment of urban women, especially in manufacturing, services and trade, based on four employment-unemployment NSS surveys (1983 to 1999-2000) and the census estimates. The increased rate of growth of output in this period has not been translated into increased employment opportunities for urban women workers. The paper also analyses the sectoral shares of employed females, the annual average rate of growth of employment for urban women and the employment patterns. It shows an increase in the regular but subsidiary activities of urban women workers along with rising open unemployment rates and deteriorating work conditions in terms of lower wages and lack of non-wage remuneration.

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