ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Error message

  • Notice: Undefined variable: rendered_rows in include() (line 15 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/contrib/views_slideshow_cycle/theme/views-slideshow-cycle-main-frame.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 16 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_item in include() (line 17 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 22 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_rendered in include() (line 23 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 16 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_item in include() (line 17 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 22 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_rendered in include() (line 23 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 16 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_item in include() (line 17 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 22 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_rendered in include() (line 23 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 16 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_item in include() (line 17 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 22 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_rendered in include() (line 23 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 16 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_item in include() (line 17 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: css_id in include() (line 22 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: field_rendered in include() (line 23 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/theme/views-slideshow-pager-field-field.tpl.php).
  • Notice: Undefined variable: rendered_rows in include() (line 15 of /public_html/www.epw.in/public/sites/all/modules/views_slideshow/contrib/views_slideshow_cycle/theme/views-slideshow-cycle-main-frame.tpl.php).
-A A +A

Some Aspects of Groundwater Balance in Punjab

in Punjab Surendar Singh This paper highlights some important issues pertaining to groundwater irrigation in Punjab, (i) Over-exploitation of ground water in Punjab has made the groundwater balance precarious; the annual drawdown in many regions far exceeds the replenishment; (ii) The 1988 deluge provided only temporary relief by augmenting the net groundwater balance, the gap between draft and recharge continues to be very high, indicating enormous pressure on the irrigation system of the state; (iii) In many regions of the state, the availability of groundwater for irrigation is the direct consequence of canal irrigation, much of the draft in the state is being carried out with the help of electric operated shallow tubewells getting power at subsidised rates; (iv) Increase in double-cropped area, irrigation intensity and area sown to paddy appear to have impinged upon the groundwater resource in Punjab; and (v) The widening gap between recharge and draft components of groundwater balance and consequent depletion of the resource would have serious technological, economic and social implications.

Subscribers please login to access full text of the article.

New 3 Month Subscription
to Digital Archives at

826for India

$50for overseas users

Get instant access to the complete EPW archives

Subscribe now

Comments

(-) Hide

EPW looks forward to your comments. Please note that comments are moderated as per our comments policy. They may take some time to appear. A comment, if suitable, may be selected for publication in the Letters pages of EPW.

Back to Top