ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846
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OILSEEDS-Policy Objectives Not Clear

in de facto control of Panama. And as for protecting American lives, the invasion itself claimed the lives of 23 American soldiers, besides those of hundreds of Panamanian soldiers and civilians. The invasion has also been portrayed as part of the Bush administration's crusade against drugs. Other US action, whether they know it or not has had quite the opposite effect. In July 1989, US refusal to renew an international coffee agreement caused coffee prices to crash. This encouraged cocaine production because Colombian farmers switched to growing coca, their only alternative, from which cocaine is derived.

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